Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī-   '(demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)'

Semantic Field(s): One


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: begeondan, beiundan adv/prep beyond ASD/W7
gēa adv yea W7
gēo, gīo, gū adv already GED
geon adj yon W7
geond adv yond W7
geondan adv beyond W7
gi(e)f, gyf, gib conj if ASD/GED
gīet adv yet W7
ilca adj/pron (the) same ASD
nefne, næfne, nemne conj except, unless, if not ASD/GED
Middle English: beyond adv beyond W7
-er adv.sfx more/greater W7
hither adv yonder W7
if conj if W7
ilk n/pron ilk; same AHD
item adv item, in addition, also W7
ya, ye adv yea, yes W7
yet adv yet W7
yon adj yon, yonder W7
yond adv yonder W7
yonder adv yonder W7
English: beyond adv farther, on/to far side AHD/W7
ibidem adv in the same place AHD
-id sfx secondary allergic skin rash AHD/W7
id n source of organism's energy from which ego/libido are derived AHD/W7
id n secondary allergic skin rash AHD/W7
idem pron same, previously mentioned AHD/W7
identical adj being the same AHD/W7
identify vb to establish identity AHD
identity n sameness of character in different instances AHD/W7
if conj in the event that AHD/W7
ilk n type, kind AHD
item adv also, in addition AHD/W7
iterate vb.trans to repeat AHD/W7
reiterate vb.trans to do/say again/repeatedly AHD/W7
yea adv yes AHD/W7
yet adv besides, in addition AHD/W7
yon adj yonder AHD/W7
yond adv yonder AHD/W7
yonder adv at/in a more/less distant place AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ie, ge adv yea ASD
ieta adv yet W7
jef, jof conj if GED
Frisian: ja adv yea ASD
Dutch: ja adv yea ASD
of conj or, either, whether TLL
ofschoon conj although TLL
Old Saxon: ef conj if GED
giu, ju adv already GED
jā adv yea ASD
Old High German: giu, ju adv already GED
ienēr dem.adj that W7
jā adv yes W7
Middle High German: jā adv yea ASD
German: er he, it TLL
es her TLL
ihm him TLL
ihn him TLL
Ihnen you (polite) TLL
ihnen them TLL
ihr their TLL
ihr her TLL
ihr her TLL
ja adv yea ASD
ob conj if, whether TLL
obgleich conj although TLL
obschon conj although TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ef conj if, lest, whether LRC
er rel.pcl who, which; when LRC
Old Icelandic: ef, if n.str.neut doubt GED
efa vb.wk to doubt GED
Icelandic: jā adv yea, yes ASD
Danish: ja, jo adv yea ASD
Swedish: ja, jo adv yea ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: is pers.pron he, she, it LRC
ita it LRC
jaind adv yond, there ASD
ju adv now, already GED
juþan adv already GED
saei rel.pron (he) who, which LRC
þáu adv then, in that case LRC
ya(i) adv yea ASD
Crimean Gothic: ies pers.pron he CGo
ita nbr.card one (1) CGo
*þiinita, thiin-ita nbr.card eleven (10 + 1) GED
Oscan: eíseís pron he RPN
Umbrian: ere pers.pron he, it RPN
erek, eřek pron he, it RPN
erse pron he, it RPN
Latin: iam adv already LRC
ibi adv there, then LRC
ibīdem adv ibidem AHD/ELD
-id n.sfx (patronymic) W7
id pron.neut it W7
idem pron the same W7
ipse, ipsa, ipsum inten.pron self LRC
is, ea, id dem.pron him, her, this LRC
-is n.sfx.fem (patronymic) W7
ita adv thus LRC
itaque adv and also LRC
item adv also, the same way LRC
itero, iterare, iteravi, iteratus vb to repeat, do again W7
iterum adv again W7
reitero, reiterare, reiteravi, reiteratus vb to repeat W7
Late Latin: identitas, identitatis n.fem identity W7
Medieval Latin: identicus adj identical W7
French: -ide sfx likeness W7
Lithuanian: jaũ adv just, already GED
jéi conj if GED
jìs, jì pron he, she, it LRC
conj and, but LRC
Latvian: arvien adv all the time, the whole time LRC
ja conj if GED
jàu adv already GED
vienlīdzīgi adv equally LRC
Old Church Slavonic: eterъ adj one, a certain LRC
*i dem.pron he LRC
i adv/conj and, even LRC
iže rel.pron who, which LRC
inъ dem.adj this, this one here LRC
kъde int.adv when, where LRC
sьde adv here LRC
u(že) adv already GED
ju(že) adv already GED
Greek: εἰ conj if LRC
ἐκεῖ adv there LRC
ἐκεῖνος dem.pron that LRC
enē adj of the day/year before W7
ἔνθα adv then, there LRC
ἐπεάν conj when, after LRC
ἐπεί conj when, after LRC
ἐπειδή conj after LRC
ἔπειτα adv thereupon LRC
ἕως conj until LRC
ἠδέ conj and, also LRC
μιν pron it LRC
οἶον adv so to say LRC
οἶος adj alone LRC
ὅς pron.dem/poss/rel this, that, he, she, it LRC
ὡς adv/conj so, as, thus LRC
Classical Armenian: ayn pron that (over there); he, she, it LRC
ays dem.adj/pron this, this right here LRC
etʿe conj that; if; or LRC
Avestan: aēša- pron this RPN
Sanskrit: itara n the other W7
iti conj thus W7
eṣá-ḥ pron this RPN
yád conj if GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
int=interrogative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
2=2nd person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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