Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ed-   'to eat'

Semantic Field(s): to Eat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dēt n tooth GED
essur vb to eat GED
Welsh: dant n tooth GED
esu vb to eat LRC
Old English: ǣs n.str.neut carcass GED
ǣt n.str.neut food GED
ent n.masc giant, strong/mighty person ASD
entisc adj re: giant(s) LRC
e(ō)ten n.masc giant, monster ASD
eōtenisc, eōtonisc adj re: giant, monster ASD
etan, æt, æton, eten vb.str to eat GED
ettan, ettede, etted vb.wk.I to feed, graze, pasture LRC
fretan vb to devour W7
tind n.masc tine, tooth (of implement) ASD/IEW
tōþ, tēþ n tooth, teeth GED
tūsc, tūx n tush, tusk GED
Northumbrian: eta vb to eat ASD
Middle English: denticle n denticle W7
endenture n indenture, written agreement AHD
eont n giant OED
eten vb to eat W7
et(t)in n giant, monster OED
freten vb to fret, devour W7
indenten vb to indent W7
tind n tine W7
tooth n tooth W7
tusche n tush AHD
tusk, tux n tusk W7
English: anodyne adj soothing, serving to assuage pain AHD/W7
ceratodus n recent/fossil dipnoan fish AHD/W7
comedo n blackhead AHD/W7
comestible adj edible AHD/W7
conodont n extinct small fishlike chordate with conical teeth AHD
creodont n extinct carnivorous mammal, lit. flesh-tooth AHD
dandelion n Eurasian plant with large bright-yellow flower AHD/CDC
dental adj re: teeth/dentistry AHD/W7
dentate adj having teeth/pointed conical projections AHD/W7
denti- pfx re: tooth/teeth AHD
denticle n small tooth/other conical pointed projection AHD/W7
dentist n one who treats teeth and associated tissues AHD/W7
eat, ate, eaten vb.str to ingest, chew, and swallow as food AHD/W7
edacious adj re: eating AHD/W7
edentate adj lacking teeth AHD/W7
edentulous adj toothless AHD/W7
edible adj eatable, fit to be eaten AHD/W7
Ent prop.n tree-herder in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Enting prop.n Ent child in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entish prop.n Ent language in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entmaiden prop.n young female Ent in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entmoot prop.n Ent gathering in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entwade prop.n Rohan river fords in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entwash prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entwives adult female Ents in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entwood prop.n a.k.a. Fangorn Forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
escarole n endive AHD/W7
esculent adj edible AHD/W7
esurient adj greedy, hungry AHD/W7
etch vb to draw/write esp. on metal/glass by corrosive acidic action AHD/W7
Ettendales troll-fells in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Ettenmoors troll-fells in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
frass n insect droppings/excrement AHD
fret vb.trans to vex, cause suffering via emotional strain AHD/W7
indent vb to cut/divide document to produce irregular pieces that can be matched AHD/W7
indenture n contract binding one into service AHD
mastodon n extinct giant mammal akin to elephant AHD/W7
obese adj corpulent, excessively fat AHD/W7
-odon n.sfx tooth AHD
-odont adj.sfx re: teeth of specified nature AHD/W7
odont(o)- pfx tooth AHD
pleurodynia n paroxysmal pain/soreness of muscles between ribs AHD
postprandial adj after meal/dinner AHD
prandial adj re: meal/dinner AHD
Samoyed prop.n one from Siberian Urals LRC
Silvertine prop.n Moria mountain peak in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Tindrock prop.n island a.k.a. Tol Brandir in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
tine n prong, tooth, slender pointed projection GED
tooth, teeth n.str hard bony appendage(s) on vertebrate's jaw used to masticate food AHD/W7
trident adj having 3 teeth/points/processes AHD/W7
trident n 3-pronged spear associated with sea god in classical mythology AHD/W7
tush n tusk, tooth AHD
tusk n elongated, greatly enlarged tooth projecting from mouth even when closed AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ǣt n.str.neut food GED
ēt n.str.neut food GED
eta, ita vb.str to eat GED
etta vb.wk to feed, pasture GED
tōth, tond n.masc tooth, tusk ASD/GED
tusk n.wk.masc tusk, tooth ASD/GED
Frisian: ytten vb to eat ASD
Dutch: aas n.neut carrion ASD
eten vb to eat ASD
etsen vb to etch W7
tand n tooth TLL
vreten vb to devour ASD
Old Saxon: āt n.str.neut food GED
etan, etān vb.str to eat ASD/GED
tand n tooth GED
zand n.masc tooth, tusk ASD
Old Low German: zand n.masc tooth, tusk ASD
Middle Low German: or-āte, or-ēte n straw, remainder of animal feed GED
ort n food remnants GED
tind n tine GED
tinne n pinnacle GED
Low German: freten, vreten vb to devour ASD
Old High German: ās n.str.neut carcass GED
āz n.str.neut food GED
āzig adj enjoyable GED
azzen, ezzen vb.wk to feed, pasture GED
ez(z)an vb.str to eat ASD/GED
frezzan, farëzzan, firezan, frëzan vb.str to devour ASD/GED
zand, zan(t) n.masc tooth, tusk ASD/W7
zinna n.wk.fem pinnacle GED
Middle High German: ās n.neut carrion ASD
ëzzen vb to eat ASD
vrëzzen vb to devour ASD
zint n.str.masc prong, spike, tooth GED
German: Aas n.neut carrion ASD
ätzen vb to feed W7
essen vb.irr to eat ASD
fressen vb to devour ASD
Zahn n.masc tooth LRC
Zinke n.fem prong LRC
Zinne n.fem pinnacle LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: jǫtunn n.masc giant, monster LRC
tǫnn, teðr n.fem tooth, teeth LRC
Old Icelandic: af-āt, of-āt n.str.neut gluttony GED
āt n.str.neut food GED
eta vb.str to eat GED
etja vb.wk to feed, pasture GED
of-āt n fodder GED
tindr n tip; tooth on wheel GED
ǣtr adj edible GED
ætr adj enjoyable GED
Icelandic: eta vb to eat ASD
tindr n.masc spike; peak ASD
tonn n.masc tooth, tusk ASD
Danish: aas n.neut carrion ASD
fraadse vb to devour ASD
tand n tooth TLL
äde vb to eat ASD
Swedish: as n.neut carrion ASD
frata, frassa vb to devour ASD
tand n tooth LRC
äta vb to eat ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: af-etja n.masc glutton GED
fra-atjan vb.wk.I to give (as food) GED
fra-itan vb.str.IV to devour GED
itan vb.str.V to eat LRC
*tunþus n.masc tooth, tusk GED
uz-ēta n.wk.masc crib, manger GED
Latin: comedo, comedere, comedi, comestus vb to eat, consume W7
comedo n.masc glutton W7
dens, dentis n.masc tooth GED
dentalis adj of the teeth W7
dentatus adj dentate, who has teeth W7
denticulus n.masc small teeth W7
edax, edacis adj edacious, glutton W7
edento, edentāre, edentāvī, edentātus vb to make toothless W7
edentulus adj having lost the teeth (diminutive) W7
edō, edere, ēsse vb to eat GED
esca n.fem food W7
escarius adj of food W7
esculentus adj edible W7
esuriens, esurientis vb.ptc being hungry W7
esurio, esurire vb to be hungry W7
obedo, obedere, obēdī, obēsus vb to eat up W7
tridens, tridentis adj having three teeth W7
Late Latin: edibilis adj edible W7
escariola n.fem food W7
Medieval Latin: comestibilis adj edible W7
New Latin: ceratodus adj animal with horns W7
comedo n.masc blackhead W7
mastodon, mastodontis n.neut mastodon, very large beast W7
Old French: dent n.fem tooth W7
endenter vb to grow the teeth W7
Anglo-French: endenter vb to indent AHD
Middle French: comestible adj edible W7
endenter vb to grow the teeth W7
French: dent n.fem tooth W7
dentiste n.masc dentist W7
escarole n.fem (type of) chicory W7
Old Prussian: īdis n food, meal GED
īst vb to eat GED
Lithuanian: dantìs n tooth GED
edu vb to eat LRC
ėda n.fem food GED
ėdis n.masc food, fodder GED
ėdžia n glutton GED
ėsti vb to eat GED
úodas n eater, mosquito GED
Latvian: êst vb to eat GED
uôds n eater, mosquito GED
Czech: uršš n food remnants GED
Old Church Slavonic: ob-ědъ n meal GED
ědь n food GED
jadь n food GED
jamь vb to eat GED
jasli manger LRC
Russian: samoed n Samoyed W7
Aeolic: ἔ-δοντες teeth GED
Ionic: ὀ-δών n.masc tooth GED
Homeric Greek: ἔδω vb to eat, gnaw LRC
ἐσθίω, ἔσθω vb to eat, consume LRC
ὀδάξ adv biting, with teeth GED
ὀδούς, ὀδόντος n.masc tooth GED
Greek: anōdynos n.masc something that soothes pain W7
δάκνω vb to bite GED
ἔδμεναι vb to eat GED
ἔδω vb to eat GED
ἐδωδή n food GED
ἐδωδός adj greedy GED
κατέδω vb to eat up, devour LRC
odynē n.fem pain W7
Hittite: ed-mi vb to eat LRC
Armenian: a-ta-mn n tooth GED/IEW
Avestan: aδāiti vb to eat LRC
dantan-, datā n tooth GED
Sanskrit: ád-mi vb to eat LRC
ādyás adj edible, palatable GED
dán, datás n tooth GED
dáśati vb to bite GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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