Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: eg̑hs, eg̑hz   'from, out of, ex-'

Semantic Field(s): Far (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: ex- pfx ex- W7
external adj external W7
extreme adj extreme W7
strange adj strange W7
English: ec-, ek- pfx from, out of TLL
ecto- pfx from, out of AHD
eschatology n belief in/about end of world/last things AHD/W7
estrange vb.trans to remove from usual environment/associations AHD/W7
ex- pfx outside, out of AHD/W7
ex prep from, without, out of AHD/W7
exact adj precise AHD/W7
exact vb.trans to draw out from, extort AHD/W7
exacta n perfecta: bettor picks 1st/2nd finishers AHD
exanthem(a) n eruptive disease (e.g. measles) AHD/W7
exarch adj re: non-central early development (biology) AHD/W7
exarch n Byzantine viceroy AHD/W7
excrescence n abnormal/immoderate outgrowth/enlargement AHD/W7
exedra n outdoor bench with high back AHD
exemplary adj serving as pattern AHD/W7
exemplum n model, example AHD/W7
exergonic adj releasing energy AHD
exine n outer layer of wall of spore/pollen grain AHD
exit n departure from stage AHD/W7
exit vb to leave, go out LRC
exo- pfx outside, out of AHD/W7
exodus n emigration, mass departure AHD
exoergic adj releasing energy AHD
exosporium n exine AHD
exoteric adj suitable to be revealed to public AHD/W7
exotic adj introduced from another country AHD/W7
exterior adj outer, external AHD/W7
external adj re: being perceived outwardly AHD/W7
extra- pfx beyond, outside AHD/W7
extra adj more than due/usual/necessary W7
extreme adj re: highest/greatest possible degree AHD/W7
exuberate vb to overflow; be exuberant AHD/W7
strange adj alien, foreign, re: another country AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Export n.masc export LRC
extra adj extra LRC
extrem adj extreme LRC
Latin: ex, prep/pfx from, away, out of LRC
exeo, exīre, exii, exitum vb to exit, go forth/away LRC
exotericus adj meant for outsiders W7
exoticus adj foreign, exotic W7
exter adv outside W7
exterior, exterioris adj outer LRC
externus adj external, (from the) outside W7
exterus adj being foreign, on the outside W7
extrā adv/prep outside, except, beyond W7
extraneus adj external, strange W7
extremus adj.sup extreme, the most W7
Late Latin: ex- pfx out, forth, away W7
Medieval Latin: extraneo, extraneare vb to become estranged W7
Portuguese: desde prep since TLL
Spanish: desde prep since TLL
estraño adj strange TLL
Old French: estrange adj strange, foreign W7
ex-, es- pfx out, forth, away W7
Middle French: estranger n.masc foreigner W7
ex- pfx out of, from W7
extrême adj of the end, outermost W7
French: étrange adj strange TLL
Lithuanian: ìš prep from LRC
Old Slavic: iz prep out of W7
Old Church Slavonic: iz prep out of LRC
iziti, izidǫ, izideši vb to exit, go out LRC
Greek: ἐκ prep from, out of LRC
ἐξ prep from, out of LRC
ἐξαίφνης adv suddenly LRC
ἐξάπινα adv suddenly LRC
ἐξαπίνης adv on a sudden LRC
ἐξίτηλος adj fading, forgotten LRC
ἔξω adv outside LRC
exōterikos adj external W7
exōterō adv more outside W7
exōtikos adj exotic W7
eschatos adj last, farthest W7
Classical Armenian: i prep from, out of, away from; from among LRC
yarnem vb to rise up LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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