Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ei-   'to go, exit'

Semantic Field(s): to Go


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ēode vb.supp.pret.1/ went LRC
gēar, gēr, gǣr n.neut year; (name for) J-rune ASD
gēar-dæg n.masc long ago (lit. year-day) LRC
Middle English: ambition n ambition W7
circuit n circuit W7
comencen vb to commence W7
counte n county W7
eire n eyre W7
erraunt adj errant W7
hour n hour W7
issue n exit, proceeds W7
Januarie prop.n January W7
perisshen vb to perish W7
preterit adj preterit W7
pretor n praetor W7
sedition n sedition W7
sodain adj sudden W7
trance n trance W7
viscounte n viscount W7
yere n year W7
English: adit n nearly horizontal passage from surface in mine AHD/W7
ambient adj encompassing, surrounding on all sides AHD/W7
ambition n desire for rank/fame/power AHD/W7
anion n ion migrating to anode in electrolyzed solution AHD/W7
cation n ion migrating to cathode in electrolyzed solution AHD/W7
circuit n circular line encompassing area AHD/W7
coitus n sexual intercourse AHD/W7
comitia n public assembly of Romans to exercise judicial/electoral/legislative function AHD/W7
commence vb to begin, enter upon AHD/W7
concomitant adj accompanying, esp. in incidental/subordinate way AHD/W7
count n European nobleman equivalent to English earl AHD/W7
county n domain of count AHD/W7
county n.obs count AHD/W7
dysprosium n rare-earth element in highly magnetic compounds AHD/W7
errant adj re: traveling AHD/W7
exit n departure from stage AHD/W7
exit vb to leave, go out LRC
eyre n periodic circuit AHD/W7
Hinayana prop.n southern conservative branch of Buddhism LRC
horary adj re: hour AHD/W7
hour n time for daily liturgical devotion AHD/W7
initial adj incipient, re: beginning AHD/W7
initiate vb.trans to start, set going AHD/W7
introit n first part of mass AHD/W7
ion n atom with positive/negative electric charge AHD/W7
issue n proceeds from revenue source (e.g. estate) AHD/W7
itinerant adj traveling place-to-place AHD/W7
itinerary n journey's route LRC
janitor n doorkeeper AHD/W7
January prop.n 1st month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
Janus prop.n god of doors/beginnings (Roman mythology) AHD
Mahayana prop.n theistic branch of Buddhism, originated in 1st century A.D. LRC
obituary n notice of person's death AHD/W7
perish vb to die, become ruined/destroyed AHD/W7
praetor n Roman judicial magistrate ranking below consul AHD/W7
preterit adj past, former, bygone AHD/W7
sedition n inciting resistance to/insurrection against lawful authority AHD/W7
subito adv suddenly, immediately AHD/W7
sudden adj coming/happening unexpectedly AHD/W7
trance n stupor, inability to function AHD/W7
transient adj short-lived, passing into/out of existence AHD/W7
transit n passage, act/process/instance of passing through/over AHD/W7
transitive adj having/containing direct object AHD/W7
viscount n British peer ranking above baron/below earl AHD/W7
Yahrzeit prop.n anniversary of relative's death AHD
year n period of revolution of earth around sun (ca. 365 1/4 days) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ier, iar, ger n.neut year ASD
Frisian: jier n year ASD
Dutch: horloge n clock, watch TLL
jaar n.neut year ASD
Old Saxon: gēr, jār n.neut year ASD
Low German: ja(a)r n.neut year ASD
Old High German: jār n.neut year ASD/W7
Middle High German: jār n.neut year ASD
jārzīt n.fem anniversary AHD
German: Ja(h)r n.neut year ASD
Jahrzeit n.fem anniversary AHD
Uhr n.fem clock, watch TLL
Yiddish: Yahrzeit prop.n.fem Yahrzeit, anniversary AHD
North Germanic  
Runic: *jera n year; (name for) J-rune LRC
Old Norse: ár n.neut year; (good) season LRC
Icelandic: ār n.neut year ASD
Danish: aar n.neut year ASD
ur n clock, watch TLL
Swedish: år n.neut year ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ƕáiwa adv how, in what way LRC
iddja vb.supp.pret went GED/W7
jēr n.str.neut year LRC
Latin: adeo, adīre, adii, aditus vb to go to W7
aditus, aditūs n.masc approach W7
ambiens, ambientis vb.pres.ptc surrounding, going around W7
ambio, ambīre vb to surround, go around W7
ambitus, ambitūs n.masc orbit, cicuit, revolution, circumlocution W7
circueo, circuire, circuii, circuitus vb to go around W7
circumeo, circumire vb to go around W7
coitus, coitūs n.masc a coming together W7
coitus vb.ptc having come together W7
comes, comitis n.masc companion, one of the imperial court W7
comitia assembly of the Roman people W7
comitium n.neut house of the comitia W7
comitor, comitāri vb to accompany W7
concomitor, concomitāri vb to accompany W7
eo, īre, ii, itus vb to go W7
exeo, exīre, exii, exitum vb to exit, go forth/away LRC
exitus, exitūs n.masc act of going out; destruction W7
hora n.fem hour W7
ineo, inīre, inii, initus vb to begin, go into W7
initialis adj first, initial W7
initio, initiare vb to begin, induct, initiate W7
initium n.neut beginning W7
introeo, introīre, introii, introitus vb to go in W7
introitus, introitūs n.masc introit, entrance W7
iter, itineris n.neut way, road, journey LRC
itio, itionis n.fem act of going W7
janitor n.masc doorkeeper W7
janua n.fem door W7
Januarius prop.n.masc January: month named for Janus W7
Jānus, Iānus prop.n.masc Janus W7
janus n.masc arch, gate W7
obitus n.masc decease W7
perio, perīre vb to perish W7
praeter prep.adv beyond, past, by W7
praetereo, praeterīre vb to go by, pass W7
praeteritus adj passed in front of, passed W7
praetor n.masc praetor W7
seditio, seditionis n.fem separation W7
subeo, subīre vb to come up W7
subitaneus adj sudden W7
subitō adv suddenly W7
subitus adj sudden W7
trānseō, transīre, transīvī, transitus vb to pass, go over/across LRC
transitus, transitūs n.masc a going across W7
usus, usūs n.masc use, practice LRC
ūtor, ūtī, ūsus vb.dep to use LRC
vitō, vitāre, vitāvī, vitātus vb to shun, avoid, evade LRC
Vulgar Latin: cominitio, cominitiare vb to commence W7
Late Latin: comes, comitis n.masc count W7
comitatus n.masc office of a count W7
hora n.fem hour, season W7
initio, initiāre, initiāvī, initiātus vb to begin W7
itinerans, itinerantis vb.ptc on the road, traveling W7
itineror, itinerāri vb to journey W7
transitivus adj transitive W7
Medieval Latin: comitatus vb.ptc assembly, retinue W7
horarius n.masc horary W7
introitus vb.ptc introduced W7
iterō, iterāre vb to travel W7
obituarium n.neut obituary W7
vicecomes, vicecomitis n.masc viscount W7
New Latin: dysprosium n.neut a chemical element W7
Old French: ambition n ambition AHD
conté n.masc county W7
erre n.masc/fem trip W7
errer vb to travel W7
heure n.fem hour W7
issir vb to go/come out W7
issue n.fem exit W7
perir, periss- vb to perish W7
Anglo-French: eire n.fem trip W7
Middle French: ambition n.fem ambition W7
circuite n.masc circuit W7
comencer vb to start W7
comte n.masc count W7
initial adj first, beginning W7
introite adj introit, internal W7
issue n.fem end, exit, result W7
sedition n.fem separation W7
sodain adj sudden W7
transe n.fem trance W7
transir vb to swoon, pass away W7
viscomte n.masc viscount W7
French: errant adj one who errs/wanders W7
errer vb to err, wander, travel W7
heure n hour TLL
Italian: subito adj quick, sudden W7
Old Prussian: ēit vb to go LRC
Lithuanian: eiti vb to go LRC
Old Church Slavonic: iti, idǫ, ideši vb to go LRC
Homeric Greek: εἶμι vb to go, come LRC
Greek: anienai vb to go up W7
aniōn vb.ptc going up W7
dysprositos adj hard to get at W7
ἐπίειμι vb to come near LRC
ienai vb to go AHD
katienai vb to go down W7
prosienai vb to approach W7
prositos adj approachable W7
hōra n.fem hour, time, season W7
Hittite: i-it vb to go LRC
iyatta(ri) vb to proceed LRC
Avestan: aēiti vb to go LRC
Sanskrit: éti vb to go W7
mahāyāna n theistic branch of Buddhism, lit. great vehicle W7
hīnayāna n southern conservative branch of Buddhism, lit. lesser vehicle W7
Tocharian A: yā- vb to go LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
supp=suppletive (form)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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