Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. el-, elē̆i-, lē̆i-, olī̆nā   'to bend; elbow'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, Elbow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: uilenn n elbow AHD
Irish: uillinn n elbow AHD
Old English: el(e)boga, elnboga n.masc elbow ASD/W7
eln n.fem ell ASD/W7
lim n.neut limb, joint; branch IEW
liþ n joint, limb, body member LRC
Middle English: elbowe n elbow W7
eln n ell W7
lim n limb; branch W7
English: arshin n ell AHD
elbow n joint of arm AHD/W7
ell n unit of length: 45 inches AHD/W7
limb n arm/leg, appendage W7
Limlight prop.n Rohan border river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
uilleann adj re: elbow-operated Celtic bagpipe AHD
ulna n inner bone of forearm AHD/W7
Wandlimb prop.n Entwife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: (i)elne n.fem ell ASD
Frisian: jelne n ell ASD
Dutch: el(le) n.fem ell ASD
elleboog n.masc elbow ASD
Old High German: el(i)na, elle n.fem ell ASD
elinbogo n elbow W7
lid n joint, link LRC
Middle High German: el(l)enboge n.masc elbow ASD
eln(e), ellen, elline n.fem ell ASD
German: Elle n.fem ell ASD
El(len)bogen, Elnbogn n.masc elbow ASD
Glied n.neut limb, body member LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: liðr n.masc joint LRC
limr n.str.fem limb; small branch IEW
líða vb to move, go; pass, progress LRC
Icelandic: alin n.fem ell ASD
al(n)bogi, olbogi, öl(n)bogi n.masc elbow ASD
lim n.neut limb, branch (of tree) ASD
limr n.masc limb, joint (of animal) ASD
Danish: albue n.masc/fem elbow ASD
alen n.fem ell ASD
led n link, joint LRC
Swedish: aln n.fem ell ASD
led n joint LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: aleina n.fem ell ASD
liþus n limb, body member LRC
Latin: ulna n.fem elbow W7
New Latin: ulna n.fem bone in forearm W7
Old Persian: arašn- n arshin AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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