Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: em-   'to take'

Semantic Field(s): to Take


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: assumen vb to assume W7
consumen vb to consume W7
example n example W7
exemplifien vb to exemplify W7
exempt adj exempt W7
presumen vb to presume W7
prompt adj prompt W7
prompten vb to prompt W7
ransoun n ransom W7
redemen vb to redeem W7
redempcioun n redemption W7
resumen vb to resume W7
sample n sample W7
vintage, vendage n vintage W7
English: ademption n revocation of gift made in will AHD
assume vb.trans to receive, take up/in AHD/W7
consume vb to destroy, do away with completely AHD/W7
example n fact/item/aspect/incident representative of group/type AHD/W7
exemplify vb.trans to show/illustrate by example AHD/W7
exempt adj set apart; free/released from liability AHD/W7
exempt vb to excuse, release, make exempt W7
impromptu adj improvised, made/done (as if) on spur of moment AHD/W7
peremptory adj ending/precluding right of action/debate/delay AHD/W7
preemption n right to purchase before others AHD/W7
premium n reward/recompense for particular act AHD/W7
presume vb to dare, take upon self without leave/warrant AHD/W7
prompt adj punctual, quick/ready to act AHD/W7
prompt vb.trans to incite, move to action AHD/W7
pronto adv promptly, quickly AHD/W7
ransom n payment (demanded) for redemption of captured person AHD/W7
redeem vb.trans to repurchase, buy back AHD/W7
redemption n buying back AHD/W7
resume n summary, summing up AHD/W7
resume vb to reoccupy, assume/take again AHD/W7
sample n specimen, representative from larger whole/group AHD/W7
subsume vb.trans to classify under general principle AHD/W7
sumptuary adj designed to limit luxury/extravagance/personal expenditure AHD/W7
sumptuous adj lavish, splendid, expensive AHD
vintage n season's grape/wine yield from vineyard AHD/W7
Latin: ademptio, ademptiōnis n.fem ademption, taking away AHD/CLD
adimo, adimere vb to take away AHD
assumo, assumere vb to assume W7
consumo, consumere vb to absorb, spend entirely W7
demo, demere vb to take off W7
emo, emere vb to take, buy W7
exemplum n.neut example W7
eximo, eximere, exemi, exemptus vb to exempt, take out W7
peremptorius adj destructive W7
perimo, perimere, peremi, peremptus vb to destroy, take entirely W7
praemium n.neut booty, profit, premium W7
praesumo, praesumere vb to presume, anticipate W7
promo, promere, prompsi, promptus vb to bring forth W7
promptus adj prompt, ready W7
redemptio, redemptionis n.fem redemption W7
redimo, redimere, redemi, redemptus vb to redeem W7
resumo, resumere vb to resume, renew W7
sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus vb to spend, take up W7
sumptuarius adj sumptuary, of spending W7
sumptus, sumptūs n.masc expense W7
vindemia n.fem vintage W7
Late Latin: peremptorius adj peremptory W7
praesumo, praesumere vb to dare W7
Medieval Latin: exemplifico, exemplificare vb to exemplify W7
praemio, praeemere, praeemi, praeemptus vb to buy before W7
promptō, promptāre vb to prompt, start W7
New Latin: subsumo, subsumere vb to cover over, take under W7
Spanish: pronto adj ready W7
Old French: rançon n.fem ransom W7
Middle French: consumer vb to consume W7
example, essample n.masc sample, example W7
exemplifier vb to exemplify W7
présumer vb to assume W7
prompt adj rapid, ready, prompt W7
redemption n.fem redemption, saving W7
redimer vb to redeem W7
résumer vb to make an abstract W7
vendenge n.fem vintage W7
French: impromptu adv extemporaneously W7
rançon n ransom TLL
rédemption n redemption TLL
résumé n.masc a summary W7
résumer vb to resume, summarize W7
Lithuanian: im̃ti, ìma, ėmė vb to begin, start; take, gather LRC
Old Church Slavonic: jęti, imǫ, imeši vb to take, seize LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at