Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. en   'in'

Semantic Field(s): Near (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: en, in(i)- prep in GED
Old English: and, ond conj and AHD
beneoþan, benyðan prep beneath ASD/W7
binnan prep within W7
in prep in, into LRC
inn prep into GED
inna(n) adv/prep (from) within LRC
inne adv/prep inside, within GED
innemest adj inmost, innermost GED
innera adj inner GED
innera adj.comp inner, interior W7
neoþan adv below, beneath W7
niþera, neoþera adj.comp nether ASD/W7
niþer(e) adv down, below, beneath ASD/W7
underneoþan adv/prep underneath ASD/W7
Northumbrian: bi(o)nna prep within ASD
Middle English: and conj and W7
ben adv within W7
beneth(e), beneyth adv beneath MEV/W7
dissenteris n dysentery W7
en- vb.pfx en- W7
entrailles n entrails W7
entren vb to enter W7
in adv/prep/pfx in, in- W7
inn n inn W7
inner adj.comp inner W7
inter-, enter- pfx inter- W7
intro- pfx intro- W7
nether adj nether W7
undernethe prep/adv underneath W7
English: and conj also AHD/W7
atoll n coral island: lagoon inside reef AHD/W7
ben adv within AHD/W7
beneath adv below, in/to lower position AHD/W7
bilander n small 2-masted merchant vessel AHD/W7
dedans n open gallery at service end of tennis court AHD/W7
dysentery n severe infectious diarrhea with mucus/blood passage AHD/W7
em- vb.pfx be/go/put (with)in/on (e.g. emplace) AHD/W7
en- vb.pfx be/go/put (with)in/on (e.g. enthrone) AHD/W7
endo- pfx within AHD
endoergic adj re: (nuclear) energy absorption AHD
endothecium n inner lining of mature anther AHD/W7
enkephalin n endorphin with opiate qualities AHD
enter vb to go/come in AHD/W7
enteric adj intestinal, re: enteron AHD/W7
enteron n intestines, alimentary canal AHD/W7
ent(o)- pfx inner, inside, within AHD/W7
entrails n guts, viscera AHD/W7
entropy n measure of disorder in closed thermodynamic system AHD/W7
esoteric adj designed for/understood by specially initiated AHD/W7
esotropia n cross-eye syndrome AHD
exenterate vb.trans to remove contents of (e.g. pelvis) AHD/W7
in- pfx (with)in, into, toward AHD/W7
in prep into, inside, within AHD/W7
inn n public house for lodging/entertaining travelers AHD/W7
inner adj.comp situated farther in AHD/W7
inter- pfx between, among, amidst AHD/W7
interim n interval, time intervening AHD/W7
interior adj inner, lying/occurring/functioning within limits AHD/W7
interloper n meddler, intruder, encroacher AHD/W7
intern adj internal AHD/W7
internal adj existing/situated within limits/surface AHD/W7
intestine adj internal AHD/W7
intestine n tubular alimentary canal from stomach to anus AHD/W7
intima n innermost coat of organ AHD/W7
intimate vb.trans to declare, announce AHD/W7
intine n endosporium, innermost wall of spore/pollen grain AHD
intra- pfx within AHD/W7
intrados n interior curve of arch/vault AHD/W7
intro- pfx in, into AHD/W7
introgression n ingress, going in AHD/W2I
introvert vb to turn/draw inward AHD/W7
intussusception n drawing in from without AHD/W7
inventory n itemized list AHD/W7
inverness n loose belted coat with cape AHD/W7
mesentery n vertebrate membrane: double fold of peritoneum AHD/W7
nether adj lower, situated down/below AHD/W7
sannyasi n Hindu ascetic mendicant AHD/W7
underneath prep directly below, close beneath AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: binn(i)a prep within ASD
in prep in, into GED
in(n)a adv/prep inside ASD/GED
inne adv inside, within ASD
innere, inra adj inner ASD/GED
nither adv down, below, beneath ASD
Frisian: binnen prep within ASD
Dutch: billander n bilander W7
bin prep inside W7
binnen prep within ASD
en conj and TLL
Old Saxon: in prep in, into GED
inna(n) adv/prep inside, within GED
inne adv inside, within ASD
niðar adv down, below, beneath ASD
Old High German: enti conj and W7
in prep in, into GED
inna, inni, inne adv/prep inside, within ASD
in(n)ana, innan adv/prep inside, within ASD/GED
innaro, innero adj inner ASD/GED
nidar prep/adv down ASD/W7
unt prep/conj unto, until W7
untar prep between, among W7
Middle High German: binnen prep within ASD
German: binnen prep within ASD
in prep in, into LRC
innen adv within ASD
nieder adj/adv low, down, nether ASD
und conj and TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: inn adv in, within LRC
innan prep into, (from) within LRC
inni adv inside, within LRC
inni n inn, dwelling W7
prep in, within; among; during; into, onto LRC
neðan adv underneath, from below/beneath LRC
niðr adv down LRC
undorn n.masc the time before or after the midday meal LRC
Old Icelandic: inni adv/prep inside GED
inri adj inner GED
prep in GED
niðra, niðrað vb to lower, put down ICE
Icelandic: innan adv/prep (from) within ASD
inni adv indoors ASD
inri, iðri adj inner ASD
prep in, into ASD
niðr adv down, below, beneath ASD
Danish: i prep in TLL
nederdel n skirt TLL
Swedish: i prep in TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: in prep in, to, towards; by, among LRC
inn prep into GED
inna(n), innana prep/adv within, inwardly ASD/GED
innuma adj inner GED
Old Latin: en prep in GED
endo adv/prep in GED
interus adj inward, interior W7
Latin: dysenteria n.fem dysentery W7
en- pfx in W7
exentero, exenterare, exenteravi, exenteratus vb to disembowel W7
in, in-, im- prep/pfx in, into LRC
inter prep/pfx between, among LRC
interaneum n.neut intestine(s) W7
interaneus adj interior W7
interim adv meanwhile W7
interior adj inside W7
internus adj internal W7
interpretor, interpretāri, interpretātus vb.dep to interpret LRC
intestinum n.neut intestine(s) W7
intestinus adj of the interior W7
intimus adj most interior, secret W7
intrā adv/prep inside, within, during LRC
intro, intrāre vb to enter W7
intrō adv/pfx within, (to the) inside W7
intus adv within W7
Late Latin: esotericus adj of within, re: writings destined to be read within a school W7
intimo, intimāre, intimāvī, intimātus vb to put in, announce W7
Medieval Latin: intralia n.fem entrails W7
New Latin: end- pfx inside W7
mesenterium n.neut membranes in abdominal cavity W7
Portuguese: em prep in TLL
entre prep between, among TLL
Spanish: en prep in TLL
entre prep between, among TLL
Old French: en- prep in W7
entrer vb to enter W7
Middle French: en-, in- pfx in W7
entrailles entrails W7
inter- pfx between W7
interior adj interior W7
interne adj internal W7
intestin n.masc intestine W7
intro- pfx inside W7
mesentere n.fem mesentery, intestinal membrane W7
French: dans prep in TLL
dedans prep inside W7
en prep in TLL
entre prep between, among TLL
intrados n.masc interior curve of arch/vault R1/W7
Italian: in prep in TLL
Old Prussian: en prep in GED
Lithuanian: į̃, iñ prep in GED
Latvian: iekš adv in LRC
Old Church Slavonic: prep in, into LRC
n'iva n.fem field, ground LRC
on- pfx in GED
Greek: dysenteria n.fem dysentery W7
εἰς, ἐς prep towards LRC
eisō adv within W7
ἐν, ἔνι, ἐνί prep in GED
en- pfx in W7
ἔνδον adv/prep within GED
ἔνειμι vb to be in, be possible LRC
enteron n.neut intestine W7
exenterizein vb to burst out W7
esō adv within W7
esōterikos adj of within, writings destined to be read within a school W7
esōterō adv within W7
Hittite: anda(n) adv/prep in GED
Armenian: i prep in GED
Sanskrit: antara- n interior AHD
ántaras prep inside GED
antár prep between GED
ni- pfx one's own GED
ni prep down W7
Hindi: sannyāsī n Hindu ascetic mendicant W7
Tocharian B: -ne prep in GED
Tocharian A: -an prep in GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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