Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. enebh-, embh-, ombh-, nō̆bh-, nēbh-?, m̥bh-   'navel'

Semantic Field(s): Navel


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: imbliu n navel LRC
Old English: nafela n.masc navel ASD/W7
nafogār, nafegār n.masc auger ASD/CDC/W7
nafu n.fem nave (of a wheel) ASD/W7
Middle English: auger n auger W7
nauger, naugor n auger CDC/W7
nave n nave, wheel hub W7
navel n navel W7
English: auger n tool to bore holes in wood AHD/W7
nave n hub of wheel AHD/W7
navel n abdominal depression where umbilical cord is/was attached AHD/W7
nombril n center point of lower half of armorial escutcheon AHD/W7
omphalos n navel AHD
umbilical adj re: umbilicus LRC
umbilicus n navel AHD
umbo n boss of shield AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: navla n navel ASD
Dutch: avegaar, eveger, egger n auger CDC
Low German: naviger, näviger n auger CDC
Old High German: naba n nave ASD
nabigēr n auger CDC
nabu, nabalo, nabulo n navel ICE/W7
nabugēr n auger W7
Middle High German: nabeger, negeber, negber n auger CDC
German: Nabel n.masc navel; boss (of shield) ICE
Näber, Neber n auger CDC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: nafli n.masc navel ICE
Icelandic: nafarr n auger CDC
nafli n navel ASD
nöf n nave ASD
Danish: navle n navel ICE
Swedish: nafvare n auger CDC
Latin: umbilicus n.masc umbilicus W7
umbo n.masc elbow; shieldboss W7
Middle French: nombril n.masc navel W7
Latvian: naba n navel LRC
Greek: ὀμφᾰλος n.masc navel, shieldboss LRC
Avestan: nāf n navel LRC
Sanskrit: nábhya- n hub LRC
nā́bhi n navel LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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