Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: enek̑-, nek̑-, enk̑-, n̥k̑-   'to reach, obtain'

Semantic Field(s): to Reach, Arrive, to Get, Obtain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ro-icc vb to reach GED
Old English: ful(l)-nēah, ful-nēh adv almost, very nearly, lit. full-near ASD
ge-neah adj/n.neut adequate; abundance, sufficiency GED/ASD
genōg, genōh adj enough GED
nēah, nēh, nēar adv nigh, nearer ASD
nēah-gebūr, nēh(e)-būr n.masc neighbor, lit. nigh-dweller AHD
Middle English: ner adv nearer W7
nigh adv nigh W7
ynough adj enough W7
English: enough adj sufficient in scope/quality/quantity to satisfy need/demand AHD/W7
near adv/prep nigh, within; at, close to W7
neighbor n one living/located nearby W7
nigh adj/adv/prep near(ly), close to W7
oncogenesis n tumor formation/development AHD
oncology n study of tumors AHD/W7
pice n former monetary unit in India/Pakistan: 1/64 rupee AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: (e)nōch adj enough GED
nī, nei adv nigh ASD
nōgia vb.wk to be adequate GED
Dutch: na prep/conj after TLL
naar prep to, toward TLL
nadat conj after TLL
Old Saxon: ginōg, ginōh adj enough GED
nāh adv/prep nigh ASD
Old High German: ganōc, ginuog adj enough GED
ge-nah adj adequate GED
gi-nuogan vb.wk to be adequate GED
nāh adj/adv/prep nigh, near, after W7/ASD
nāh-gibūr n neighbor, lit. nigh-dweller W7
German: genug adj enough LRC
genügen vb to be adequate LRC
nach prep to, along, after TLL
nachdem conj after TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gnógr adj enough, plenty LRC
ná, náð vb to get, obtain LRC
ná-, nær, næst adv nigh, nearer, nearest W7/ICE
Old Icelandic: (g)nōgr adj enough GED
(g)nœgja vb.wk to be adequate GED
Icelandic: nær adv nearer ASD
Danish: naar conj when TLL
Swedish: när conj when TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bi-nauhan vb.ptpr.V to be allowed/permitted GED
*ga-nauhan vb.ptpr.V to suffice GED
*ga-nohjan vb.wk.I to be content GED
ga-nōhs adj enough LRC
nēƕa prep nigh, near LRC
Latin: nanciscor, nancisci vb.dep to get, attain GED
Lithuanian: nèšti, nešù vb to carry GED
Latvian: nākt, nāku, nācu vb to come LRC
Old Church Slavonic: nesti, nesǫ, neseši vb to bring LRC
nesǫ vb to reach, arrive GED
Greek: ἐνεγκεῖν vb to carry GED
ὄγκος n.masc mass, burden GED
Hittite: ninikzi vb to lift GED
Classical Armenian: hasanem vb to approach, arrive; reach, obtain LRC
Avestan: ąšnaoiti vb to gain GED
nasaiti vb to gain GED
Sanskrit: áṁśas n part, portion GED
aśnóti vb to gain GED
naṁśas n acquisition GED
náśati vb to gain GED
Hindi: paisā n pice W7
Tocharian B: eṅk- vb to hold, seize, carry GED
Tocharian A: ents- vb to hold, seize, carry GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
V=class 5
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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