Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ere-s-, ers-, r̥s-, eres-, and rē̆s-, rō̆s-   'to flow'

Semantic Field(s): to Flow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: eorre, ierre adj irate, wandering, embittered GED
eorre n.neut ire ASD
eorsian, yrsian vb.wk to make irate GED
rǣs n.masc rush, race ASD/W7
rǣsan, rǣsde, rǣsed vb.wk.I to rush, hasten LRC
Middle English: erratic adj erratic W7
erren vb to err W7
erroneous adj erroneous W7
errour n error W7
ire n ire GED
ras n race W7
rosmarine n rosemary W7
English: aberrant adj abnormal, deviating from proper/expected course AHD
aberration n act of strayng from normal state/moral standard AHD/W7
drosera n insectivorous plant in sundew family AHD/W7
drosophila n small two-winged fly AHD/W7
err vb.intrans to stray AHD/W7
errant adj roving, traveling, seeking adventure AHD/W7
erratic adj wandering, having no fixed course AHD/W7
erratum n corrigendum AHD/W7
erroneous adj wandering AHD/W7
error n mistake, ignorant/imprudent act/condition deviating from norm AHD/W7
irascible adj hot-tempered, easily provoked AHD/W7
irate adj angry, wrathful LRC
ire n wrath, anger GED
race n act of running AHD/W7
rishi n divinely inspired Indian poet/sage AHD
rosemary n fragrant shrubby mint AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: irre adj irate, embittered GED
Old Saxon: irrean vb.wk to err, confuse GED
irri adj irate, embittered GED
Old High German: irran vb.wk to err, confuse GED
irri adj irate, perplexed GED
irrida n.wk.masc sin, error GED
irrōn vb.wk to be confused GED
Middle High German: irre n.str.fem sin, error GED
German: irr adj irate LRC
irren vb to err LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rās n race W7
Icelandic: rás n.fem race, running ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: af-airzjan vb.wk.I to deceive; stray, be misled GED
*airzei n.fem heresy GED
*airzeis adj deceived, in error GED
*airzjan vb.wk.I to mislead GED
Latin: aberrō, aberrāre, aberrāvī, aberrātus vb to go astray W7
erraticus adj erratic W7
erratum n.neut erratum, mistake W7
errō, errāre, errāvī, errātus vb to err, wander W7
errō, errōnis n.masc wanderer, vagabond W7
erroneus adj erroneous W7
error, erroris n.masc error, mistake, wandering LRC
ira, irae n.fem ire LRC
irascor, irasci vb to be(come) irate W7
rorarii skirmishers W7
ros, roris n.masc dew W7
rosmarinus n.masc rosemary W7
Late Latin: irascibilis adj easily angered W7
New Latin: drosera n.fem genus: plants in sundew family W7
drosophila n.fem genus: small fly W7
Old French: errer vb to err, travel W7
errour n.fem error W7
ire n.fem ire W7
Middle French: erratique adj erratic W7
irascible adj irascible W7
Homeric Greek: ἀρειή n threatenings GED
Greek: Ἄρης n.masc Ares LRC
droseros adj dewy W7
drosos n.fem dew W7
erōē n.fem respite W7
Hittite: arsanai- vb to envy, grow angry GED
Armenian: eṙam vb to seethe, be disquieted GED
heṙ n ire GED
Old Persian: arshan- n man, hero AHD
khshayārshan- vb.ptc lit. ruling over men AHD
Avestan: arəšyant- adj envious GED
Sanskrit: irasyáti vb to be irate GED
Tocharian B: arṣāklai n snake GED
Tocharian A: ārṣal n poisonous reptile GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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