Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: es-en-, os-en-   'summer, harvest time'

Semantic Field(s): Summer, Crop, Harvest


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: eorna n barley GED
Old English: earnian vb.wk to earn GED
esne n.str.masc hireling, servant GED
Middle English: ernen vb to earn W7
English: earn vb.trans to receive in return for work done/services rendered AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: arn n.fem harvest ASD
esna n wages GED
Old Saxon: asna n.str.fem tax, levy GED
Old High German: aran, arnōt n.str.masc harvest GED
arn n.str.fem harvest GED
arnēn, arnōn vb.wk to harvest GED
asni, asneri n.str.masc hireling, servant GED
Middle High German: arnen vb to reap ASD
German: ernten, ärnten vb to reap, harvest ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: ǫnn n.str.fem wages GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: asans n.fem summer, (time of) harvest GED
asneis n.masc hireling GED
Old Prussian: assanis n harvest GED
Old Church Slavonic: jesenь n fall, harvest time GED
Russian: ósenь n fall, harvest time GED
Homeric Greek: ὀπώρη n fruit-time, harvest-tide LRC
Greek: ὀπώρα n fruit, early fall, lit. after summer GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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