Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: eti   'out, beyond, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Far (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Gaulish: eti conj also GED
t-ic conj and also GED
Old English: ed- pfx (addition, repetition) GED
English: eddy n air/water current moving contrary to main current AHD/W7
Scots English: ydy n eddy W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: et- pfx (addition, repetition) ASD
Old Saxon: ed- pfx (addition, repetition) GED
Old High German: it(a)-, ith- pfx (addition, repetition) GED
Middle High German: ite- pfx (addition, repetition) ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ið- pfx (addition, repetition) ASD
iþa n eddy, current W7
Old Icelandic: ið- pfx over- GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: id- pfx (addition, repetition) ASD
conj if, but, however LRC
Latin: et conj and LRC
etiam adv also, even LRC
Portuguese: e conj and TLL
Spanish: y conj and TLL
French: et conj and TLL
Italian: e, ed conj and TLL
Old Prussian: at-, et- adv again GED
Greek: ἔτι adv still LRC
οὐκέτι adv no longer LRC
Old Persian: atiy adv/prep very; beyond GED
Avestan: aiti adv/prep very; beyond GED
Sanskrit: áti adv/prep very; beyond GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at