Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. eu-, euə- : u̯ā-, u̯ə-   'to lack, want; empty, vacant'

Semantic Field(s): Empty


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wan adj lacking, wanting, deficient GED
wana n.masc wane, lack, deficiency W7
wanian vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
Middle English: avoiden, avoyden vb to avoid CDC/W7
devoid adj devoid W7
devoiden vb to vacate W7
vacacioun n vacation W7
vacant adj vacant W7
vain adj vain W7
vanisshen vb to vanish W7
vanite n vanity W7
vaunten vb to vaunt, brag W7
voide adj void W7
voiden vb to void W7
wane n wane W7
wanen vb to wane W7
wanten vb to want W7
wast(e) adj waste W7
wasten vb to waste W7
English: avoid vb.trans to void, expel AHD/W7
devastate vb.trans to lay waste AHD/W7
devoid adj destitute, not having/using AHD/W7
evacuate vb to make empty AHD/W7
evanesce vb.intrans to dissipate like vapor AHD/W7
vacant adj free, not occupied AHD/W7
vacate vb to annul, make legally void AHD/W7
vacation n intermission, (time of) respite AHD/W7
vacuity n empty space AHD/W7
vacuous adj empty W7
vacuum n emptiness of space AHD/W7
vain adj idle, worthless, having no value AHD/W7
vanish vb.intrans to disappear, pass quickly from sight AHD/W7
vanity n something vain AHD/W7
vast adj enormous, very great in size/extent W7
vaunt vb to brag, make vain display of one's worth/attainments AHD/W7
void adj containing nothing AHD/W7
void vb.trans to clear, empty, make vacant AHD/W7
wane n decrease, dwindling AHD/W7
wane vb.intrans to dwindle, decrease in size/extent AHD/W7
want vb to lack, fail to possess AHD/W7
waste adj desolate, being wild/uninhabited AHD/W7
waste n desert, barren/sparsely settled region AHD/W7
waste vb to devastate, lay waste AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wan adj lacking GED
wania vb.trans to lessen, curtail, diminish ASD
won adj absent, wanting ASD
wonia vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
Dutch: wan n leak GED
Old Saxon: wan adj absent, lacking, wanting GED
Middle Low German: wone n hole in ice GED
Old High German: wan, wesan adj lacking, wanting ASD/GED
wanōn vb.wk to wane, lessen, diminish GED
wuosti adj waste W7
Middle High German: wune n hole in ice GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vanta vb to wane, lack, want W7
Old Icelandic: vana vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
vanr adj lacking GED
Icelandic: vana vb.trans to spoil, destroy, diminish ASD
vanr adj absent, wanting ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: wan n.neut wane, lack GED
*wanan vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
*wans adj lacking, deficient, at a disadvantage GED
Latin: devasto, devastare, devastavi, devastatus vb to devastate W7
evacuo, evacuare, evacuavi, evacuatus vb to evacuate W7
evanesco, evanescere vb to vanish, evanesce W7
ēvoco, ēvocare, ēvocāvī, ēvocatum vb to summon, call forth LRC
prōvocō, provocāre, provocāvī, provocātum vb to challenge LRC
vacans, vacantis vb.ptc vacant W7
vacatio, vacationis n.fem freedom, exemption W7
vacō, vacāre, vacāvī, vacātus vb to vacate, be vacant W7
vacuitas n.fem emptiness, vacuity W7
vacuum n.neut vacuum W7
vacuus adj vacuous W7
vanesco, vanescere vb to vanish W7
vanitas, vanitatis n.fem vanity W7
vānus adj vain; void, vacant, vacuous GED
vasto, vastāre vb to desolate, lay waste W7
vastus adj vast; waste, desolate W7
Vulgar Latin: exvanire vb to evanesce W7
vocitus adj/vb.ptc void, vacuous W7
Late Latin: vanito, vanitāre vb to be vain W7
Old French: desvuidier vb to be devoid W7
esvuidier, esveudier vb to empty out CDC/W7
vacant adj vacant, empty W7
vain adj vain, empty, without effect W7
vanité n.fem vanity W7
voide adj void W7
vuidier vb to void W7
Old North French: wast adj waste, desolate W7
waster vb to lay waste W7
Anglo-French: avoider vb to avoid CDC
Middle French: desvuidier vb to be devoid W7
evanir, evaniss- vb to vanish W7
vacation n.fem freedom, vacuity W7
vanter vb to boast W7
vuidier vb to void W7
Lithuanian: vañskariai n unhatched eggs GED
Latvian: vanskare n unhatched eggs GED
Greek: εὖνις adj lacking GED
Armenian: unayn adj empty GED
Avestan: ūna- adj lacking, defective GED
Sanskrit: ūnás adj lacking, defective GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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