Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. gal-   'to call, cry'

Semantic Field(s): to Call, Summon, to Cry, Weep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: clatrian vb to clatter W7
hilde-calla n.masc battle-herald ASD/W7
Middle English: callen vb to call W7
clacken vb to clack W7
clatren vb to clatter W7
clinken vb to clink W7
English: call vb to shout, speak in loud voice AHD/W7
clack vb to clatter, prattle IEW/W7
clatter vb to make rattling sound AHD/W7
clink vb to twang, tinkle, jingle IEW
gallinaceous adj re: heavy-bodied terrestrial bird AHD/W7
gallinule n aquatic bird in rail family AHD/W7
Glagolitic prop.adj/n (re:) ancient W Slavic script AHD/W2I
glasnost n candor w.r.t. social problems/shortcomings AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: klagen vb to complain LRC
Old High German: kallōn vb to talk loudly W7
German: klagen vb to complain LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kalla vb to call, cry out; name LRC
Danish: klage vb to complain LRC
Swedish: klaga vb to complain LRC
Latin: gallina n.fem hen W7
gallinaceus adj re: domestic fowl W7
gallus n.masc cock W7
New Latin: Gallinula n.fem genus of birds W7
Old Slavic: glasŭ n voice W7
Old Church Slavonic: glagolati, glagol'jǫ, glagol'ješi vb to say, speak LRC
glagolъ n.masc word, speech LRC
glasъ n.masc voice, sound, word LRC
Russian: glas n voice AHD
glasnost' n glasnost, publicity, public information AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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