Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gāu-   'to rejoice, be glad'

Semantic Field(s): Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: gaude n gaud W7
joy n joy W7
rejoicen vb to rejoice W7
English: enjoy vb.trans to take pleasure/satisfaction in AHD/W7
ganoid adj re: teleost fishes (e.g. sturgeons) AHD/W7
gaud n trinket, ornament AHD/W7
gaudy n feast, entertainment AHD/W7
joy n delight, emotion evoked by success/well-being/good fortune AHD/W7
rejoice vb to gladden, give joy AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Gaudi n.fem gaudy, jamboree LRC
Latin: gaudeo, gaudēre vb to rejoice W7
gaudium n.neut joy W7
Old French: enjoir vb to enjoy W7
gaudir vb to rejoice ODE
joie n.fem joy W7
joir vb to enjoy W7
Middle French: enjoir vb to enjoy W7
joir vb to rejoice W7
rejoir, rejoiss- vb to rejoice W7
Doric: γᾱθέω vb to rejoice IEW
Homeric Greek: γανάω vb to shine, be bright IEW
γάνυμαι vb to rejoice, be glad LRC
Greek: γάνος n.neut gleam, luster, brightness W7
γηθέω vb to rejoice IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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