Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑ēi-, g̑ī-   'to sprout'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cēn n.masc torch; (name for) C/K-rune ASD/IEW
cīnan, cān, cinon, cinen vb.str to gape, break into chinks ASD/W7
cine, cīne, cȳne n.fem chink, crack ASD/W7
cīð, cȳþ n.masc chit, bud, sprig ASD/IEW
Middle English: chin n chink, crack W7
kide n kid W7
scion n scion W7
English: chink n small rent/cleft/fissure AHD/W7
chit n shoot, sprout ASD/W2I
Chithing prop.n Bree calendar's April in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
kid n young goat AHD/W7
scion n shoot, twig AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: keen n.fem chink ASD
Old Saxon: kīð n.masc chit IEW
Old High German: chīnan vb to sprout, split open W7
North Germanic  
Runic: kēnaz n torch; (name for) K-rune LRC
Old Norse: kið n kid, young animal AHD/W7
Old French: cion n.masc scion LRC
Middle French: scion n.masc scion W7
French: scion n.masc scion, tip (of rod) LRC
Lithuanian: žíedas n.masc blossom, flower LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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