Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑embh-, g̑m̥bh-, g̑ombhos   'to bite; tooth'

Semantic Field(s): to Bite, Tooth


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ācumba n oakum W7
camb n.masc/fem comb ASD/RPN
cemban, cæmban vb to comb ASD/RPN
Middle English: camb, comb n comb W7
chime n chime W7
gemme n gem W7
okum n oakum W7
English: cam n non-circular roller imparting motion to piece sliding against its edge AHD/W7
chime n apparatus for ringing bell(s) AHD/W7
comb n toothed instrument used to clean/adjust/confine hair AHD/W7
gem n jewel AHD/W7
gemma n bud, asexual reproductive plant body AHD/W7
gemmate adj re: gemma AHD/W7
gemmule n small bud AHD/W7
gomphosis n immovable articulation where hard part (e.g. tooth) is received into bone cavity (e.g. jaw) AHD/W7
kame n short hill/ridge of sand/gravel deposited by glacial meltwater AHD/W7
oakum n loose hemp/jute fiber from old ropes AHD/W7
unkempt adj not neat, lit. uncombed ODE
Scots English: kame n comb W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: kaem n comb ASD
Dutch: kam n.masc comb ASD
Old Saxon: camb n.masc comb ASD
Old High German: kamb, champ n comb RPN
kamp(o) n.masc comb ASD
Middle High German: kambe n.fem comb ASD
kamp n.masc comb ASD
German: Kamm n.masc comb ASD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: kambr n comb RPN
Icelandic: kambr n.masc comb ASD
Danish: kam n.masc/fem comb ASD
Swedish: kam n.masc comb ASD
Latin: cymbalum n.neut cymbal W7
gemma n.fem gem; gemma W7
gemmula n.fem.dim little gem W7
New Latin: gomphosis n.fem gomphosis W7
Old French: chimbe n.masc chime W7
Middle French: gemme n.fem gem, precious stone W7
French: came n.fem cam W7
gemmule n.fem gemmule, bud of plant embryo R1/W7
Lithuanian: žam̃bas n pointed object RPN
Latvian: zùobs n tooth RPN
Polish: ząb n tooth RPN
Old Church Slavonic: zǫbъ n tooth RPN
Albanian: dhëmb n tooth RPN
Greek: γομφίος n grinder-tooth RPN
gomphos n.masc nail, bolt, joint, pin, articulation W7
gomphōsis n.fem a bolting together W7
Sanskrit: jámbha-ḥ n.masc tooth ASD/RPN
jámbhate, jábhate vb to chew up, crush RPN
Tocharian B: keme n tooth RPN
Tocharian A: kam n tooth RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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