Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gēu-, gəu-, gū-   'to bend, curl; cup, vessel'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, Cup, Jug, Pitcher


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: āttorcoppa, āttercoppe, āt(t)orcoppe n.fem attercop, lit. venom-spider ASD/OED
cicen n.neut chicken ASD/W7
cofa n.masc cove, closet ASD/RPN
copp n.masc cup, goblet; peak, summit IEW
coppa n spider OED
cupp n.masc cup, goblet IEW
cuppe n.fem cup, goblet ASD/W7
cycgel n cudgel W7
cȳf(e) n.fem tub, vat, cask ASD/RPN
cȳfl n tub, bucket RPN
*cȳpe n kipe IEW
Middle English: attercop(pe) n attercop CDC
chiken n chicken W7
coppeweb n cobweb W7
cove n cove, den W7
cuppe n cup W7
kuggel n cudgel W7
kype n kipe W2I
English: Attercop prop.n epithet for spider in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
attercop n (poisonous) spider OED
chicken n common domestic fowl IEW/W7
Cob prop.n epithet for spider in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
cob n spider; head, round clump IEW
cobweb n lit. spider web W7
cove n chamber, cavity, recessed place IEW/W7
cub n young carnivorous mammal IEW/W7
cudgel n short heavy club IEW/W7
cup n small bowl-shaped drinking vessel W7
kipe n osier basket, plaited fish trap IEW/W2I
kyte, kite n belly, stomach, abdomen IEW/W2I
Scots English: ettercap n attercop CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kopp n cup, goblet IEW
Dutch: kieken, kuiken n.neut chicken ASD
kuip n.fem tub ASD
kuit n calf (of leg) TLL
Old Saxon: cōpa n.fem cup, vat, vessel ASD
Middle Low German: kopp n cup, goblet IEW
Old High German: kopf, chuph n cup, goblet IEW
kuofa n.fem cup, vat, vessel ASD
Middle High German: kobe n stable, pigsty RPN
kuofe n.fem vessel ASD
German: Dummkopf n.masc dummkopf, blockhead, simpleton LRC
Kopf n.masc head IEW
Kufe n.fem cup, vessel ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: koddi n cushion KNW
Old Icelandic: kofi n hut, shed RPN
kúfóttr adj convex RPN
Icelandic: kūpa n.fem bowl, box, basin ASD
Danish: edderkop n attercop CDC
kippe, kyper n.masc/fem dyer's tub ASD
kylling n chicken ASD
ædder-cop n cup of poison, lit. atter-cup ICE
Swedish: kudde n cushion SAO/TLL
kupa n.fem case, box ASD
kyckling n.masc chicken ASD
kyp n.masc dyer's tub ASD
Latin: cupa n.fem cask, vat, vessel ASD
Late Latin: cuppa n.fem cup W7
Middle Latin: cuppa n.fem cup, vat, vessel ASD
Spanish: cuba n.fem cask for wine/oil ASD
French: cuve n.fem vat, vessel ASD
Greek: γύπη n cave, den, hole RPN
γῡρεύω vb to run around in a circle RPN
γῦρος n ring, circle RPN
γῡρός adj round RPN
Sanskrit: gulī n globe, pill RPN
gola-ḥ n globe, ball, ball-shaped jar RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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