Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: glag-, or glak-   'milk'

Semantic Field(s): Milk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: galaxias, galaxie n galaxy W7
letuse n lettuce W7
English: agalactia n non-secretion of breast milk after birth AHD
galactic adj re: galaxy AHD
galacto- pfx galactic AHD
galaxy n Milky Way (our galaxy) AHD/W7
lactate vb.intrans to secrete milk AHD/W7
lacteal adj producing/resembling/consisting of milk AHD/W7
lactescent adj becoming/appearing milky AHD/W7
lettuce n leafy food vegetable AHD/W7
polygala n milkwort AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Galaxie n.fem galaxy LRC
Latin: lac, lactis n.neut milk LRC
lactescens, lactescentis adj/vb.ptc giving milk, turning into milk W7
lactesco, lactescere vb to turn into milk W7
lacteus adj of milk W7
lacto, lactāre, latāvī, lactātus vb to give milk W7
lactuca n.fem lettuce W7
polygala n.fem polygala W7
Late Latin: galaxias adj milky W7
New Latin: Polygala n.fem milkwort genus W7
Portuguese: leite n milk TLL
Spanish: leche n milk TLL
Old French: laitue n.fem lettuce W7
French: lait n milk TLL
Italian: latte n milk TLL
Homeric Greek: γάλα, γάλακτος n.neut milk LS/RPN
Greek: agalaktia n agalactia AHD
galaxias adj milky W7
Hittite: galaktar, kalaktar n.nom/ balm, nutriment, soothing substance RPN
gala(n)k-, kala(n)k- vb to soothe, satisfy RPN
Bashgali: zu n milk EIE
Ashkunu: zō n milk EIE
Tregami: dzor n milk EIE
Waigali: zōr n milk EIE
Sanskrit: jálāṣa-ḥ adj healing, appeasing RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at