Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gras- : grō̆s-   'to gnaw, eat, devour'

Semantic Field(s): to Eat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: cresse n cress W7
English: cress n plant in mustard family AHD/W7
epigastrium n epigastric region AHD/W7
gangrene n death/decay of soft tissue from insufficient blood supply AHD/W7
gastric adj re: stomach AHD/W7
gastr(o)- pfx belly, stomach AHD/W7
gastrocnemius n most prominent calf muscle AHD
gastrula n early metazoan embryo AHD/W7
grama n a pasture grass AHD/W7
gramineous adj re: grass AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: kressa n cress W7
German: Kresse n.fem cress LRC
Latin: gangraena n.fem gangrene W7
gramen, graminis n.neut grass, plant W7
gramineus adj of grass W7
New Latin: epigastrium adj.neut over the belly W7
gastr- pfx belly, stomach W7
gastrula n.fem early metazoan embryo W7
Spanish: grama n grama W7
Old French: cærse n.masc cress W7
cressa n.fem cress W7
Greek: gangraina n.fem gangrene W7
gastēr n.fem stomach W7
gran vb to gnaw W7
epigastrion adj.neut over the belly W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at