Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghabh-   'to take, grab, seize'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: ga(i)bid vb to take, seize GED/RPN
English  
Old English: æt-geofa, æt-gi(e)fa n.masc food-giver ASD
forgifan, forgeaf, forgēafon, forgiefen vb.str.V to give, grant LRC
gafol, gafel, gaful n.neut gavel W7/ASD
gi(e)fan, geofan, giofan, gyfan vb.str.V to give GED/RPN/ASD
giefu n.str.fem gift, favor; (name for) R-rune LRC
Middle English: able adj able W7
bitakle n binnacle W7
debentur n debenture W7
debte, dette n debt W7
dever n duty W7
devoir n devoir W7
due adj due W7
duete n duty W7
endeveren vb to exert oneself W7
enhabiten vb to inhabit W7
exhibiten vb to exhibit W7
forgiven vb to forgive W7
gavel n gavel W7
gift n gift W7
given vb to give W7
habit n habit W7
inhibiten vb to inhibit W7
maladie n malady W7
prebende n prebend W7
prohibiten vb to prohibit W7
provender n provender W7
English: able adj having sufficient skill/power/resources to accomplish goal AHD/W7
binnacle n box/case/stand containing ship's lamp/compass AHD/W7
cohabit vb.intrans to live together like husband/wife AHD/W7
debenture n writing/certificate signed by public official as evidence of debt/rights to monetary sum AHD/W7
debit n record of indebtedness AHD/W7
debt n sin, trespass AHD/W7
devoir n duty, responsibility AHD/W7
due adj owed/owing as debt AHD/W7
duty n respect, conduct due to parents/superiors AHD/W7
endeavor vb to strive to reach/achieve AHD/W7
exhibit vb to present to view AHD/W7
forgive, forgave, forgiven vb.str to pardon, cease to feel resentment AHD/W7
gavel n rent/tribute in ancient/medieval England AHD/W7
gift n notable talent/capacity AHD/W7
give, gave, given vb.str to make present of AHD/W7
habile adj able, skillful AHD/W7
habit n clothing AHD/W7
habitable adj suitable for living in/on AHD
habitant n inhabitant AHD
habitat n place/site where plant/animal normally/naturally lives/grows AHD/W7
inhabit vb to live in, occupy as habitat/place of residence AHD/W7
inhabitant n one who inhabits (a place) AHD
inhibit vb to forbid/prohibit from doing AHD/W7
malady n bodily disease/disorder of animal AHD/W7
prebend n endowment held by cathedral/collegiate church for maintenance AHD/W7
prohibit vb.trans to enjoin, forbid by authority AHD/W7
provender n feed, dry food for cattle/horses AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: geva, jeva vb.str to give GED/RPN/ASD
geve n.str.fem gift GED
Dutch: geven vb to give LRC
Old Saxon: geƀa n.str.fem gift GED
geƀan vb.str to give GED/RPN
Old High German: geba n.str.fem gift GED/RPN
geban vb.str to give GED/RPN
Middle High German: gǣbe n welcome GED
German: Gabe n.fem gift LRC
geben vb to give LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *gebo n gift; (name for) G-rune LRC
gibu vb.1.sg I give GED/RPN
Old Norse: gefa vb.str to give LRC
gift n gift W7
Old Icelandic: gjǫf n.str.fem gift GED
gæfa n.fem luck GED
gæfr adj pleasant GED
Icelandic: gefa vb to give ASD
Danish: give vb to give LRC
Old Swedish: giva vb to give W7
Swedish: giva vb to give LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: fra-giban vb.str.V to give, bestow LRC
*fra-gifts n betrothal, presentation RPN
gabei n.fem riches GED/RPN
giban vb.str.V to give, yield LRC
us-giban vb.str.V to repay, present LRC
Italic  
Umbrian: habe vb to take, receive, have RPN
Latin: debeo, debēre, debui, debitus vb to owe, have the duty of W7
debitum n.neut debt, thing due W7
exhibeo, exhibēre, exhibui, exhibitus vb to show openly W7
habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum vb to have, hold GED/RPN
habilis, habilis, habile adj apt, fit, handy, skillful W7
habitaculum n.neut dwelling place W7
habito, habitare vb to dwell W7
habitus, habitūs n.masc condition, character W7
inhabito, inhabitare vb to inhabit W7
inhibeo, inhibēre, inhibui, inhibitus vb to hold back W7
praebendus vb.ger.masc things to be granted W7
praebeō, praebēre, praebuī, praebitus vb to offer, provide LRC
prohibeo, prohibēre, prohibui, prohibitus vb to inhibit, hold away W7
Vulgar Latin: debita n.fem debt W7
Late Latin: cohabito, cohabitāre vb to inhabit in common W7
praebenda n.fem subsistence allowance granted by the state W7
Medieval Latin: praebenda n.fem prebend W7
provenda n.fem food for domestic animals W7
Old Portuguese: bitácola n.fem dwelling place W7
Portuguese: haver vb to have TLL
Old Spanish: bitácula n.fem dwelling place W7
Spanish: gabela n tax, tribute ASD
haber vb to have TLL
Old French: dette n.fem something owed W7
deveir, devoir vb to owe, be obliged W7
habit n.masc clothing W7
malade adj sick W7
maladie n.fem sickness W7
Anglo-French: dueté n.fem duty W7
Middle French: able adj apt W7
deu vb.ptc owed W7
devoir vb to owe W7
enhabiter vb to inhabit W7
prébende n.fem stipend of a clergyman W7
provende n.fem abundance W7
provendre vb to give to W7
French: avoir vb to have TLL
gabelle n tax, tribute ASD
habile adj skillful, clever W7
Italian: avere vb to have TLL
gabella n tax, tribute ASD
Baltic  
Lithuanian: gãbana n armful (of hay) GED/RPN
gabanà n armful GED/RPN
gabenù, gabénti vb to take away GED
Iranian  
Khotanese: ggośtä n handful RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: gábhasti-ḥ n arm, hand GED/RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
ger=gerund(ive)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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