Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hau-, g̑hau̯ə-   'to call'

Semantic Field(s): to Call, Summon


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gēac n.masc gawk; cuckoo KEW
god n.masc god, deity LRC
godsunu n.str.masc godson LRC
gydig adj mad, possessed, giddy W7
Middle English: gidy adj mad, foolish, giddy W7
god n god W7
English: gawk n lout, fool, simpleton W7
giddy adj frivolous, lightheartedly silly AHD/W7
god n being believed to have supernatural powers/attributes requiring mankind's worship AHD/W7
godhead n divinity, divine nature/essence AHD/W7
godsend n needed thing, desirable event AHD/W7
gotterdammerung n turbulent end of regime/institution AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: god n god ASD
Old Saxon: god n god ASD
Old High German: got n.masc god ASD/W7
gouh n cuckoo KDW
German: Gauch n.masc gawk; cuckoo LRC
Gott n.masc god ASD
Götterdämmerung n.fem gotterdammerung, twilight of the gods AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gaukr n.masc cuckoo KNW
goði n.masc chief (and priest) LRC
guð n.neut god LRC
Icelandic: guð n.masc god ASD
Danish: gøg n cuckoo TLL
Swedish: gök n cuckoo TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: guþ n.str.masc god LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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