Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghedh-, ghodh-   'to join, unite, gather, make a bond'

Semantic Field(s): to Join, Unite, to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gada n companion, associate RPN
gad(e)rian, gad(o)rigean vb.wk to gather, collect, store up ASD/RPN
gaderung n.fem assembly ASD/RPN
gaderwist n companionship RPN
gadrigendlic, gaderigendlīc adj collective ASD/RPN
gæd n.neut fellowship ASD/RPN
gædeling n.masc kinsman, comrade, companion GED/RPN
gædere, gadere, geador adv together W7
gæd(e)rian vb to gather ASD/GED
geador adv together GED
(ge-)gada n comrade GED
gōd adj good, excellent LRC
tō-gædere adv together GED/RPN
Middle English: gaderen vb to gather W7
good adj good W7
togedere adv together W7
English: gather vb to collect, bring together AHD/W7
good adj of favorable character/tendency AHD/W7
Goodbody prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
together adv in(to) one place/mass/group/collection AHD/W7
Scots English: gadyr vb to gather ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: gad(e)ria, ga(du)ria vb.wk to gather, unite ASD/GED
gadia vb to gather, unite GED/RPN
gadur adv together GED/RPN
gōd adj good ASD
tō-gadera adv together ASD
Frisian: gearjen vb to gather ASD
Middle Dutch: gaden vb to please GED
gaderen vb to unite, come together RPN
Dutch: gaderen vb to gather ASD
goed adj good TLL
Flemish: gaden vb to please GED
Old Saxon: gaduling, garaling n.str.masc relative ASD/GED
gi-gado n one's equal GED
gōd adj good ASD
Middle Low German: gad(d)eren vb.wk to unite GED
gaden vb to please GED
gader adv together GED
Low German: gad(d)ern vb to gather ASD
Old High German: be-gatōn vb.wk to unite, come together GED/RPN
gatiling, gataling n.str.masc relative ASD/GED/RPN
ge-gat adj joined GED
guot adj good W7
Middle High German: gater adv together GED
gatern, getern vb.wk to unite ASD/GED
(ge-)gate n.wk.masc spouse GED
geteling n.masc fellow, relation ASD
German: Gatte n.masc spouse LRC
gattern vb to gather ASD
Gattin n.fem wife, spouse, consort TLL
gut adj good ASD
Güte n.fem goodness, kindness TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: góðr adj good LRC
Danish: god adj good TLL
Swedish: god adj good TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gadiliggs n.masc cousin GED/RPN
gōðr adj good ASD
gōds, gōþs adj good LRC
Crimean Gothic: *gadelþa, gadeltha adj beautiful CGo/GED
Lithuanian: goda n honor GED
Latvian: gads n.masc year LRC
gùodât vb to hold in honor GED
gùods n honor, glory GED
Old Church Slavonic: gadati vb to believe GED
godina n.fem time, hour LRC
godъ n (favorable) time GED/RPN
ugobьziti, ugobьžǫ, ugobьziši vb to yield richly LRC
ugoditi, ugoždǫ, ugodiši vb to please, be pleasing LRC
Sanskrit: gadh- vb to cling, hold fast, hang on to GED/RPN
gádhya-ḥ adj seized/gained as booty RPN
Tocharian: kātk- vb to rejoice GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at