Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑hei- : g̑hi-   'snow; winter'

Semantic Field(s): Snow (n), Winter


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gomel, gomol, game, gamol adj old, aged, ancient ASD
English: chimera n she-monster: lion's head, goat's body, serpent's tail (Greek mythology) AHD/W7
Gamling prop.n group leader in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hibernaculum n winter-resting part of plant AHD/W7
hibernal adj wintry, re: winter W7
hibernate vb.intrans to pass winter (in torpid/resting state) AHD/W7
hiemal adj wintry, re: winter AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gamall adj old, aged LRC
Latin: chimaera n.fem chimera, she-goat W7
hibernaculum n.neut winter residence W7
hiberno, hibernāre, hibernavi, hibernatus vb to winter, hibernate W7
hibernus adj hibernal W7
hiemalis adj hiemal W7
hiems, hiemis n.fem winter LRC
New Latin: hibernaculum n.neut winter residence/resting part of plant W7
French: hiver n winter TLL
Greek: cheimōn n.masc storm; winter W7
chimaira n.fem chimera, she-goat W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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