Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghend-, and ghed-   'to get, grasp, seize'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: sprēidh n.fem cattle W7
Old English: be-gi(e)tan, bi-gi(e)tan vb to beget, produce LRC
bi-ginnan, be-ginnan vb to begin IEW/ASD
for-gietan vb to forget GED
gi(e)tan vb.str to get, obtain, receive GED/RPN/ASD
Middle English: apprehenden vb to apprehend W7
aprentis, apprentice n apprentice W7/CDC
begeten, beyeten vb to beget W7
beginnen vb to begin W7
comprehenden vb to comprehend W7
comprisen vb to comprise W7
emprise n emprise W7
enterprise n enterprise W7
forgeten vb to forget W7
gessen vb to guess W7
geten vb to get W7
misprision n misprision W7
preie n prey W7
preyen vb to prey W7
prien vb to pry W7
prise n prize W7
prison n prison W7
reprehenden vb to reprehend W7
reprisail n reprisal W7
reprise n reprise W7
surprise n surprise W7
English: apprehend vb to seize, arrest; learn, perceive AHD/W7
apprentice n trainee, one indentured to serve another AHD/W7
apprise vb.trans to tell, give notice to AHD/W7
beget, begat, begot, begotten vb.str.trans to sire, procreate as father AHD/W7
begin, began, begun vb.str to commence, do first part, take first steps W7
comprehend vb.trans to understand, grasp meaning of AHD/W7
comprise vb.trans to contain, include AHD/W7
depredate vb to ravage, plunder AHD/W7
emprise n enterprise, undertaking AHD/W7
enterprise n risky/difficult/complicated project/undertaking AHD/W7
entrepreneur n one who manages/organizes/assumes risks of business/enterprise AHD/W7
forget, forgot, forgotten vb.str to lose memory of AHD/W7
get, got, gotten vb.str to take/gain possession of AHD/W7
guess vb to form opinion with little/no evidence AHD/W7
impresario n manager/conductor of opera/concert company AHD/W7
misprision n neglect/poor performance of official duty AHD/W7
osprey n fish-eating hawk AHD
predatory adj preying on others AHD
prehensile adj adapted for prehension by wrapping around AHD/W7
prehension n (act of) grasping/seizing AHD
prey n spoil, booty AHD/W7
prey vb.intrans to raid for booty AHD/W7
prison n state of confinement/captivity AHD/W7
prize n thing taken by force/threat/stratagem AHD/W7
pry vb.intrans to peer, look closely/inquisitively AHD/W7
reprehend vb.trans to censure, voice disapproval of AHD/W7
reprieve vb.trans to respite, delay punishment of AHD/W7
reprisal n act/practice of using force less than war to redress grievances AHD/W7
reprise n charge/deduction taken yearly out of manor/estate AHD/W7
reprise vb.trans to take back AHD/W7
spree n unrestrained indulgence/outburst of activity AHD/W7
surprise n attack made without warning AHD/W7
Scots English: spreath n foray, cattle raid W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ur-jeta, for-jeta vb to forget GED/ASD
Old Saxon: bi-getan vb to seize GED/RPN
bi-ginnan vb to begin IEW
far-getan, for-getan vb to forget GED/ASD
Old High German: bi-ginnan vb to begin IEW
fir-gezzan vb.str to forget GED
gezan vb to get, obtain ASD
pi-gezzan vb.str to uphold GED
German: vergessen vb to forget LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: geta vb to get, obtain; guess LRC
Old Icelandic: gāta n.str.fem riddle GED
geta n.str.fem assumption GED
geta vb to attain, produce; guess GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: bi-gitan vb.str.V to find, meet LRC
Latin: adprehendo, adprehendere vb to apprehend CDC
apprehendo, apprehendere vb to seize, apprehend W7
apprendo, apprendere vb to learn W7
comprehendo, comprehendere vb to comprise; comprehend W7
-hendere vb.sfx to take W7
praeda n.fem prey, booty W7
praedor, praedārī vb.dep to plunder, prey upon, seize booty W7
prehendō, prehendere, prehendi, prehensus vb to grasp, seize GED/RPN
prehensio, prehensionis n.fem act of seizing W7
prēndō, prēndere vb to press, take W7
reprehendo, reprehendere vb to hold back W7
Vulgar Latin: *apprenditīcius n apprentice AHD
imprehendo, imprehendere vb to undertake W7
Late Latin: depraedor, depraedari, depraedavi, depraedatus vb.dep to hunt, depredate W7
Middle Latin: apprenticius n apprentice CDC
Portuguese: apprehender vb to apprehend CDC
apprendiz n apprentice CDC
Spanish: apprendiz n apprentice CDC
aprehender vb to apprehend CDC
Old French: ap(p)rehendre vb to apprehend CDC
apprentis n apprentice CDC
aprendre vb to learn W7
aprentis n.masc apprentice W7
emprendre vb to undertake W7
emprise n.fem undertaking, military expedition, glorious deed W7
entreprendre vb to undertake W7
entrepreneur n.masc undertaker W7
mesprendre, mespris vb to make a mistake W7
mesprison n.masc error W7
preie n.fem prey W7
preier vb to prey on, to seize booty W7
prendre vb to take W7
prise n.fem act of taking W7
prison n.fem jail W7
reprendre vb to take back W7
reprise n.fem action of taking back W7
Middle French: apprendre vb to apprehend CDC
aprentis n.masc apprentice W7
comprendre, compris vb to understand W7
emprise n.fem grip W7
entreprendre vb to undertake W7
entreprise n.fem enterprise, undertaking W7
mesprison n.masc error, wrongdoing W7
prendre vb to take W7
reprendre, repris vb to take back W7
reprisaille n.fem reprisal W7
reprise n.fem action of taking back W7
surprendre vb to take over, surprise W7
surprise n.fem taking over, surprise W7
French: appréhender vb to apprehend: arrest CDC
apprendre, appris vb to apprehend: perceive W7
apprenti n.masc apprentice CDC
entrepreneur n.masc contractor W7
préhensile adj prehensile, seizing objects W7
Old Occitan: apprehendar vb to apprehend CDC
apprentice n apprentice CDC
Old Italian: riprendere, ripresi, ripreso vb to take back W7
ripresaglia n.fem reprisal W7
Italian: apprendere vb to apprehend CDC
imprendere vb to undertake W7
impresa n.fem undertaking, firm W7
impresario n.masc contractor, manager W7/CID
Russian: za-gádka n riddle GED
Albanian: gjen vb to find GED
gjëndem, gjindem vb to be found RPN
Greek: χανδάνω vb to take in, hold, contain, comprise GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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