Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hengh-   'to step, stride, march'

Semantic Field(s): to Walk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gan(c)gan, gongan vb.str to go ASD/GED
gang, geng, gong, gung n.masc gang, course, activity ASD/GED
gengan vb to set out GED
gongan, gēong, gēongon, gongen vb.str.VII to go, walk LRC
Middle English: gang n gang W7
English: gang n way, path, journey AHD/W7
gangling adj spindly, lanky AHD/W7
gangue n worthless rock/vein where valuable metals/minerals are found AHD/W7
gangway interj step aside! leave clear passage! W2I
gangway n passageway W7
Scots English: gang n journey ASD
gang vb to go ASD
gangrel n vagrant, lanky person W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: gong, gung n.masc gang, course, activity ASD/GED
gonga vb to go GED
gunga vb to go GED
Dutch: gang n gang, course ASD
Old Saxon: gang n.str.masc gang, course, activity GED
gangan vb to go GED
Old High German: gang n.str.masc gang, course, activity GED
gangan vb to go GED
Middle High German: ganc n.masc gang, course ASD
gangen vb to go ASD
gengen vb to set out GED
gīht n.str.fem way, trip GED
German: Gang n.masc gang, course, vein of metal ASD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ganga vb to go, walk, advance LRC
gátt n.fem door-opening LRC
Old Icelandic: ganga vb to go GED
gangr n.masc gang, course, activity GED
gā vb to go GED
gātt n.fem rabbet (of a doorsill) GED
Icelandic: ganga vb to go LRC
Old Danish: gunge vb to swing GED
Danish: gang n.masc/fem gang, course ASD
landgang n gangway TLL
Swedish: gång n.masc time ASD
gånga vb to go ASD
landgång n gangway TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: afar-gaggan vb.str.VII to accompany, go after GED
*af-gaggan vb.str.VII to go away GED
gaggan vb.str.VII to go, come GED
gaggs n.masc gang, course ASD
French: gangue n.fem gangue, matrix W7
Lithuanian: žiñgsnis n.masc step, pace, stride LRC
Greek: κῖχάνω, *κίχημι vb to meet, reach, overtake GED
κοχώνη n.fem buttock(s), posterior GED
Avestan: zaŋgəm n ankle GED
zazāiti vb to return GED
Ossetic: zängä n knee GED
Sanskrit: jaghánas, jaghánam n buttock, pudenda GED
jáṅghā n shank, lower leg GED
jáhāti, jíhīte vb to leave GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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