Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑herdh-, and gherdh-   'to gird, enclose, encompass'

Semantic Field(s): to Shut, Close, Circle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gort n seeded field LRC
Old English: geard n.masc yard, fence, enclosure LRC
gyrdan, girdan vb.wk to gird ASD/RPN
gyrdel(l) n.masc belt, girdle GED/RPN
ortgeard n.masc orchard ASD/W7
Middle English: gardin n garden W7
garth n garth W7
girdel n girdle W7
girden vb to strike, thrust W7
girten vb to girt W7
girth, gerth n girth W7
orchard n orchard W7
yard n yard, enclosure W7
English: Asgard prop.n realm of Aesir (Norse mythology) LRC
Bracegirdle prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
garden n plot of ground for cultivating herbs/fruits/flowers/vegetables AHD/W7
garth n small yard/enclosure AHD/W7
gird, girt vb.wk to encircle/bind with flexible band AHD/W7
girdle n garment that encircles/confines AHD/W7
girt vb to gird AHD/W7
girth n band/strap around animal's body for fastening things on back AHD/W7
Isengard prop.n Saruman's fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
jardiniere n ornamental plant/flower stand AHD/W7
kindergarten n young children's class/school AHD/W7
Midgard prop.n world inhabited by humans (Germanic mythology) LRC
orchard n garden of fruit/nut trees AHD/W7
Treegarth prop.n Ent/Huorn enclosure in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
yard n court, small area open to sky/adjacent to building AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: garda n.masc yard, garden ASD
gerda vb to gird LRC
gerdel n girdle GED
Middle Dutch: gherde n girdle GED
Dutch: gærd(e) n yard, garden ASD
gordel n girdle TLL
Old Saxon: gard n.masc yard, garden ASD
Middle Low German: gorde n girdle GED
Old High German: gart(o) n.masc garden, enclosure ASD/W7
gurten vb to gird RPN
gurtil n.str.masc girdle GED
gurtila n.fem girdle GED
Middle High German: garte n.masc yard, garden ASD
gurt n.str.masc girdle GED
German: Garten n.masc garden W7
Gürtel n.masc girdle, belt ASD
gürten vb to gird ASD
Kindergarten n.masc kindergarten W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: āsgarðr n Asgard W7
garðr n.masc yard, enclosure; fence LRC
gjörþ n girth W7
mið-garðr n.masc Midgard, lit. middle-yard, middle-earth W7
Old Icelandic: gjǫrð n.fem girdle GED
gyrða vb to gird (with a belt) RPN
gyrðill n girdle RPN
Icelandic: garðr n.masc yard, garden ASD
gyrða vb to gird ASD
gyrðill n.masc purse, girdle ASD
Danish: gaard n.masc/fem yard, garden ASD
Swedish: gård n.masc yard, garden ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: aurti-gards n orchard ASD
*bi-gairdan vb.str.III to gird (about) GED/RPN
gairda n.fem girdle GED/RPN
gards n.str.masc house, household LRC
midjun-gards n.str.masc Midgard, lit. middle-yard, middle-earth LRC
*uf-gairdan vb to gird up GED/RPN
Oscan: heriiad let him capture! GED
Latin: urbs, urbis n.fem city LRC
French: jardinière n.fem female gardener; suspended pot for plants W7
Lithuanian: gar̃das n fence; enclosure RPN
Polish: gród n castle, palace LRC
Czech: hrad n castle, palace LRC
Serbo-Croatian: grâd n castle, palace LRC
Old Church Slavonic: gradъ n.masc city, fortification LRC
gradьcь n.masc town, garden LRC
Bulgarian: gradъ n castle, palace LRC
Russian: gorod n town, city AHD
-grad n.sfx city AHD
Albanian: dorë n hand GED
gardh, garth n hedge GED/RPN
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: κορθις n heap LRC
Greek: χείρ n hand GED
Hittite: gurtas n fortress, fortification LRC
Armenian: jeṙn n hand GED
Avestan: gərəða- n house, dwelling; inhabited cave LRC
Sanskrit: gṛhá-ḥ n house, dwelling GED/RPN
hárati vb to take GED
Tocharian B: šar n hand GED
Tocharian A: tsar n hand GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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