Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hers-   'to stiffen, bristle, stand out'

Semantic Field(s): Hard, to Stand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: go(r)st n.masc gorse, bramble RPN
Middle English: abhorren vb to abhor W7
gorst n gorse W7
horrour n horror W7
ordure n ordure W7
urchin n urchin W7
English: abhor vb.trans to loathe, regard with repugnance AHD/W7
arugula n rocket (salad crop) AHD
gorse n furze (bush) AHD/W7
hirsute adj roughly hairy AHD/W7
hispid adj rough, covered by bristle/stiff hair/minute spines AHD/W7
horrible adj dreadful, re: horror AHD
horrid adj rough, bristling AHD/W7
horripilation n goosebumps, hair bristling from fear/cold AHD
horror n painful/intense fear/dread/dismay AHD/W7
ordure n excrement AHD/W7
orgeat n sweet almond-flavored syrup AHD/W7
orzo n pasta shaped like barley pearls AHD
rocket n yellowish flowered European herb AHD/W7
urchin n hedgehog AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: gersta n barley W7
Latin: abhorreō, abhorrēre vb to abhor, shudder W7
ēr n.masc hedgehog W7
ēricius n.masc beam set with spikes W7
ērūca n.fem cabbage, colewort, arugula CLD/W7
hirsutus adj hairy, shaggy, rough W7
hispidus adj rough, hairy, bristly W7
hordeum n.neut barley W7
horreō, horrēre vb to bristle, tremble RPN
horridus adj rough, shaggy, bristly RPN
horror n.masc action of trembling, horror W7
Middle French: herichon n.masc hedgehog W7
horror n.fem horror W7
ord adj filthy W7
ordure n.fem garbage W7
orge n.masc barley W7
roquette n.fem rocket W7
French: orgeat n.masc barley W7
Old Italian: rochetta n.fem.dim garden rocket W7
ruca n.fem garden rocket W7
Greek: kri n.neut barley W7
χέρσος adj/n dry (land) RPN
chēr n.neut hedgehog W7
Sanskrit: harṣa-ḥ n bristling, erection (of hair) RPN
hárṣati vb to bristle, become stiff/erect RPN
hṛṣṭá-ḥ adj bristling, erect, stiff RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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