Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghleu-   'to be happy, joyful, gleeful'

Semantic Field(s): Happy; Happiness, Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: glēam n.masc joy, joyous noise, jubilation ASD/IEW
glēo, gleow n.neut glee, music, entertainment ASD
glēoman n.masc gleeman AHD
glīw, glig(g) n.neut glee, jesting, minstrelsy ASD/RPN
Middle English: glee n glee W7
gleman n gleeman AHD
English: glee n joy, mirth, merriment AHD/W7
gleeful adj merry, lit. full of glee W7
gleeman n minstrel, medieval itinerant singer AHD
Gléowine prop.n Theoden's minstrel in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: glamer n noise ICE
North Germanic  
Old Norse: glȳ n.neut glee ASD/W7
Old Icelandic: glam n.masc noise, tinkling sound, clash of weapons ICE
glaumr n.masc merry noise, noisy jubilation; host, crowd ICE/IEW
gleyma vb to make gleeful noise IEW
glymja vb to sound, resound IEW
glymr n din, noise, racket IEW
Old Lithuanian: glaudas, glauda n.masc/fem pastime, diversion IEW
gláudoti vb to joke, jest, banter IEW
Latvian: glaudât vb to joke, jest, banter IEW
Greek: διαχλευάζω vb to joke, mock LRC
chleuē n joke W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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