Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghoilo-s   'foaming, turbulent, frothing up'

Semantic Field(s): Wave, Surge


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: gāel n relationship GED
Welsh: gaol n love GED
Old English: gāl adj gole, gay, joyous; greedy ASD
gāl-mōd adj wanton, licentious, light-minded ASD
wīn-gāl adj intoxicated, lit. wine-gay LRC
English: Gálmód prop.n Grima's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gole adj merry, lusty, wanton, licentious, lascivious OED
West Germanic  
Dutch: geil adj gole ASD
gijl n beer under fermentation GED
gijlen vb to ferment GED
Old Saxon: gēl adj gole, frolicsome GED
gēl-mōd adj gole, light-minded ASD
Middle Low German: gīlen vb.wk to desire GED
Old High German: geil adj gole, frolicsome GED
keilī n lasciviousness GED
Middle High German: geil adj gole ASD
geilen vb.wk to make merry GED
German: geil adj gole ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: geil-igr adj beautiful GED
gil-ker n fermenting vat GED
gœl-igr adj beautiful GED
Norwegian: gil n beer under fermentation GED
Danish: geil adj gole ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *gailjan vb.wk.I to delight GED
Lithuanian: gaĩla adj desirable GED
gailùs adj pitiful; sharp, bitter GED
Latvian: gaîlêt vb to glow GED
gails adj voluptuous GED
Old Church Slavonic: (d)zělo adv very GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)

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