Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghosti-s   'guest, stranger'

Semantic Field(s): Guest, Stranger


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gæst, gi(e)st, gest, gyst n.masc guest, stranger ASD
Middle English: gest n guest W7
hospital n hospital W7
hostage n hostage W7
host(e) n host; guest W7
hostel n hostel W7
hostler n hostler W7
English: axenic adj free of other living organisms AHD/W7
euxenite n brownish black mineral: oxide of calcium/cerium/tantalum/columbium/titanium/uranium AHD/W7
guest n one entertained in person's house AHD/W7
hospice n lodging for travelers/underprivileged/young persons, often maintained by religious order AHD/W7
hospitable adj re: cordial/generous reception of guests AHD/W7
hospital n charitable institution for.needy/aged/infirm/young AHD/W7
hospitality n hospitable treatment/reception/disposition AHD/W7
host n eucharistic bread AHD/W7
host n army AHD/W7
hostage n person kept as pledge pending fulfillment of agreement AHD/W7
hostel n inn AHD/W7
hostile adj re: enemy AHD/W7
hostler n one who cares for horses/mules AHD/W7
hotel n inn, travel-lodging TLL
pyroxene n silicate mineral containing iron/calcium/sodium/aluminum/magnesium AHD/W7
xenia n effect of genes in male nucleus on non-embryonic structures AHD/W7
xen(o)- pfx strange, foreign, alien AHD/W7
xenon n heavy colorless inert gas AHD/W7
xenopus n aquatic tongueless clawed frog AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: gast n.masc guest, stranger ASD
Old Saxon: gast n.masc guest, stranger ASD
Low German: gast n.masc guest, stranger ASD
Old High German: gast n.masc guest, enemy ASD/RPN
Middle High German: gast n.masc guest, stranger ASD
German: Euxenit n euxenite W7
Gast n.masc guest, stranger ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gestr n.masc guest LRC
Icelandic: gestr n.masc guest, stranger ASD
Danish: giest n.masc/fem guest, stranger ASD
Swedish: gäst n.masc guest, stranger ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: gasts n guest, stranger RPN
Venetic: *hosti- n stranger RPN
Latin: hospes, hospitis n.masc guest, host W7
hospitale n.neut guest room W7
hospitalis adj re: guest W7
hospitium, hospitii n.neut hospitality; guest house LRC
hostia n.fem sacrificial victim W7
hostilis adj hostile W7
hostis, hostis n.masc guest, stranger; host, enemy RPN
Late Latin: hospitale n.neut hospice W7
hostia n.fem Eucharist, sacrificial victim W7
Medieval Latin: hospitale n.neut hospital, convent of the Hospitalers W7
New Latin: xenia n.fem xenia W7
Old French: hospital n.masc hospital W7
host n.masc host, enemy W7
hostage n.masc hostage W7
hoste n.masc host, guest W7
hostel n.masc inn W7
Middle French: hoiste n.fem host, Eucharist W7
hostile adj hostile W7
French: hôpital n hospital TLL
hospice n.masc hospice, hospital W7
hôtel n hotel, mansion TLL
pyroxène n.masc pyroxene W7
Old Church Slavonic: gospodь n.masc lord, master LRC
gospodьn'ь adj lord's LRC
gostь n guest RPN
Albanian: huaj adj foreign IEW
Greek: euxenos adj hospitable W7
xenon, xenia n.neut hospitality gift(s) W7
xenos n.masc guest, foreigner; host W7
Ξενοφῶν n.masc Xenophon LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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