Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghou-ro-s   'frightened, frightening'

Semantic Field(s): Fear, Fright


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gnorn, grorn, gnyrn n.masc/fem sorrow, sadness, dejection ASD/IEW
gnorn adj sad, dejected, sorrowful ASD
gnornan, gnornede, gnorned vb.wk to mourn, grieve, lament ASD
gnornian, gnornode, gnornod vb.wk.II to mourn, grieve, lament LRC
gryn, gyrn n.str.neut mourning IEW
gryre n.masc dread IEW
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: g(n)ornōn, grornōn vb to mourn, grieve, lament ASD/IEW
gornōn vb.wk to mourn GED
gorn-word n.str.neut lament GED
gruri n.masc dread IEW
Old High German: gōrag adj pitiful, miserable GED
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: gaurr n.masc miserable person IEW
East Germanic  
Gothic: *gauriþa n.fem sorrow GED
gaurjan vb.wk.I to insult GED
gaurs adj sad, sorrowful; sullen GED
Russian: žurítь vb to scold GED
Ukrainian: žurbá n sorrow GED
žurýty vb to perturb GED
Sanskrit: ghorás adj dreadful, awe-inspiring GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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