Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghrē- : ghrō- : ghrə-   'to grow, become green'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow, Green


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: grǣd n grass RPN
græs n.neut grass RPN/ASD
grasian vb to graze W7
grēne adj green RPN
grōwan vb.str to grow, increase, flourish RPN/ASD
Middle English: gras n grass W7
grasen vb to graze W7
grene adj green W7
growen vb to grow W7
herbe n herb AHD
English: grass n herbage suitable/used for grazing animals AHD/W7
graze vb to eat growing herbage AHD/W7
green adj re: color green AHD/W7
Greenfields prop.n Shire battle locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Greenway prop.n road through Bree in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Greenwood prop.n Mirkwood's former name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
grow, grew, grown vb.str to spring up, develop to maturity AHD/W7
herb n green leafy plant without persistent woody tissue TLL/W7
herbaceous adj re: herb(s) W7
herbage n herbaceous vegetation (used for grazing) W7
herbivore n plant-eating animal W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: grēne adj green ASD
grōia vb to grow RPN
grōwa vb to grow RPN
Dutch: gras n grass TLL
groeien vb to grow RPN
Old Saxon: grōni adj green ASD
Middle Low German: grōien vb to grow RPN
Old High German: gras n grass W7
graz n shoot, sprig, sprout RPN
grōen, grūen vb to grow, flourish ASD
gruoni adj green ASD
gruo(w)an vb to grow W7
German: Gras n.neut grass LRC
grasen vb to graze LRC
grün adj green ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gras n.neut grass, pasture; vegetation LRC
gróa vb to grow LRC
Old Icelandic: gróði n growth, increase RPN
gróðr n growth, crop RPN
gróna vb to become green RPN
Icelandic: gresja vb to graze ASD
grōa vb to grow ASD
grænn adj green ASD
Faeroese: gróa vb to grow RPN
Norwegian: gro vb to grow RPN
Danish: gro vb to grow RPN
græs n grass TLL
Swedish: gro vb to grow RPN
gräs n grass TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gras n grass RPN
Latin: grāmen n grass, stalk RPN
herba n.fem herb, grass; stalk, blade TLL
Old French: erbe n herb AHD
erbier n garden AHD
French: herbe n.fem herb, grass TLL
Homeric Greek: φορβή n herb, fodder, forage CLD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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