Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghrēu- : ghrəu- : ghrū-   'to crush, rub sharply'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Cornish: grou n grit GED
Welsh: gro n grit GED
Old English: grēat adj great, thick, coarse GED
grēot n.neut grit, dust, earth LRC
grotan n groat W7
grūt n grout, coarse meal W7
grytt n grit W7
Middle English: agrete adv collectively, as a body MEV
gravel n gravel W7
grete n grit W7
grewel n gruel W7
groot n groat, former British fourpence coin W7
grotes groat, grains exclusive of hull W7
gruen vb to shiver W7
gryt n grit W7
English: achromatic adj without prismatic effect AHD
chroma n color saturation AHD/W7
chromatic adj re: color sensations/phenomena AHD/W7
chrom(at)o- pfx re: color AHD
-chrome n.sfx colored thing AHD/W7
chrome n chromium AHD/W7
chromium n blue-white multivalent metal AHD/W7
congruent adj congruous AHD/W7
gravel n sand AHD/W7
great adj big, large in size AHD/W7
grit n chaff AHD/W7
grit n sand, gravel AHD/W7
groat n hulled grain broken into larger fragments than grits AHD/W7
groat n former British coin: fourpence AHD/W7
grout n lees AHD/W7
grow vb.dial to shiver AHD/W7
growsome adj gruesome AHD/W7
grue vb to shiver AHD/W7
gruel n thin porridge AHD/W7
gruesome adj grisly, inspiring horror/repulsion AHD/W7
panchromatic adj sensitive to all visible light TLL
rhodochrosite n rose red mineral: manganese carbonate AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: grāt adj great, thick, coarse GED
Middle Dutch: grūwen vb to shiver W7
Dutch: groot adj great TLL
Old Saxon: griot n.neut grit, rocks GED
grōt adj great, thick, coarse GED
Old High German: grioz n.neut grit, rocks GED
grōz adj great, thick, coarse GED
ingrūēn vb to shiver W7
German: Gries n grit ASD
gross adj great, thick ASD
Rhodocrosit n rhodochrosite W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: grautr n.masc groat(s) GED
grjōt n.neut grit GED
Icelandic: grjōt n.neut grit, stones, rubble ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: Greotingi prop.n.fem Ostrogoth tribe GED
Latin: congruens adj/vb.ptc same, congruent W7
congruo, congruere vb to agree, come together, have same dimensions W7
furfur n.masc bran W7
Medieval Latin: -chroma, chromat- sfx colored thing W7
New Latin: chromium n.neut chromium W7
Old French: gravele n.fem gravel, pebbles, pebbly ground W7
greve n.fem beach, pebbly ground W7
Middle French: gravele n.fem gravel, pebbles, pebbly ground W7
French: chrome n.masc chromium W7
Lithuanian: graudùs adj brittle GED
grū́das n grain GED
grū́sti vb to stamp GED
Latvian: graûds n grain GED
Greek: akhrōmatos adj achromatic AHD
rhodochrōs adj rose-colored W7
χραύω vb to scrape, graze, wound slightly RPN
χροιά n skin; body RPN
χρῶμα, χρῶματος n.neut color, surface of the skin RPN
chrōmatikos adj chromatic, re: color W7
χρώς n.masc color, skin, surface of the body RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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