Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gā-, gem-   'to come, go'

Semantic Field(s): to Come, to Go


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: becuman vb to come, become, happen ASD/W7
cuma n.masc guest, stranger, visitor ASD
cuman, cwōm, cwōmon, cumen vb.str.IV to come LRC
wilcuma n.masc desirable guest/visitor ASD
wilcume interj welcome ASD
Middle English: advent n advent W7
amphibena n amphisbaena AHD
aventure n adventure W7
base n base W7
basis n basis AHD
becomen vb to come to, become W7
comen vb to come W7
convenen vb to convene W7
convenient adj convenient W7
conventicle n conventicle W7
convention n convention W7
covenant n covenant W7
covent n convent W7
covin n coven W7
inventen vb to invent W7
mesaventure n misadventure W7
preventen vb to prevent W7
revenue n revenue W7
venyw n action of coming W7
welcome, wilcume interj welcome W7
English: abasia n inability to walk AHD
acrobat n one who performs gymnastic feats AHD/W7
adiabatic adj occurring without heat gain/loss AHD/W7
Advent prop.n penitential pre-Christmas season W7
advent n coming, arrival AHD/W7
adventitious adj added extrinsically, not innate/inherent AHD/W7
adventure n undertaking involving danger/unknown risks AHD/W7
amphisbaena n serpent with head at each end able to move in either direction (classical mythology) AHD/W7
anabaena n freshwater algae AHD
anabasis n advance, going/marching up AHD/W7
avenue n opening/passageway to some place AHD/W7
base n foundation, object's bottom viewed as its support AHD/W7
basis n foundation, principal component AHD/W7
batophobia n fear of passing tall building AHD
become, became, become vb.str to come into existence AHD/W7
bema n sanctuary, part of Eastern church containing altar AHD/W7
circumvent vb.trans to hem in AHD/W7
come, came, come vb.str to approach, move toward something AHD/W7
contravene vb.trans to go/act contrary to AHD/W7
convene vb to come together AHD/W7
convenient adj proper, suitable AHD/W7
convent n local house/community of religious order/congregation AHD/W7
convent vb to convene AHD/W7
conventicle n meeting, assembly AHD/W7
convention n contract, agreement AHD/W7
coven n band/assembly of (13) witches AHD/W7
covenant n compact, formal/solemn/binding agreement AHD/W7
diabase n diorite AHD/W7
diabetes n condition involving abnormal levels of blood sugar AHD/W7
event n occurrence, something that happens AHD/W7
eventual adj contingent, conditional; ultimate AHD/W7
intervene vb.intrans to enter/appear as irrelevant/extraneous feature/circumstance AHD/W7
invent vb.trans to find, discover AHD/W7
misadventure n mishap, misfortune AHD/W7
overcome, overcame, overcome vb.str to overwhelm, overpower, get the better of W7
parvenu n upstart, one who has recently/suddenly attained wealth/power AHD/W7
prevenient adj antecedent, anticipatory AHD/W7
prevent vb to anticipate/be ready for (some event) AHD/W7
provenance n source, origin AHD/W7
provenience n source, origin AHD
revenant n one who returns after death/long absence AHD/W7
revenue n income derived from investment AHD/W7
souvenir n memento, something serving as reminder AHD/W7
stereobate n masonry substructure visible above ground level AHD/W7
stylobate n continuous flat coping/pavement on which row of columns is supported AHD/W7
subvention n provision of assistance/financial support AHD/W7
supervene vb.intrans to occur as additional/adventitious/unlooked-for development AHD/W7
venire n writ issued by judge summoning jurors AHD
venue n place/county where alleged events take place, from which legal action arises AHD/W7
welcome interj used to express greeting to guest/newcomer upon arrival AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: koma, kuma vb.str to come, arrive GED
Frisian: kommen vb to come ASD
Dutch: komen, kwam vb to come, came ASD/TLL
Old Saxon: cuman, kuman vb.str to come, arrive ASD/GED
Old High German: coman vb.str to come, arrive GED
queman vb to come, go W7
willicomo interj welcome ASD
willicomo n desirable guest W7
Middle High German: komen vb to come ASD
German: kommen vb to come, arrive GED
willkommen interj welcome LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: koma vb to come, arrive; reach, obtain; occur LRC
Icelandic: koma vb to come ASD
Danish: komme vb to come ASD
Swedish: komma vb to come ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ana-qiman vb.str.IV to approach GED
gaqumþs n.str.fem assembly, synagogue LRC
*miþ-qiman vb.str.IV to go along with GED
qiman vb.str.IV to come, arrive LRC
Crimean Gothic: kommen vb to come, arrive GED
Latin: advenio, advenīre vb to arrive, come to someone W7
adventicius adj coming from without W7
adventus, adventūs n.masc arrival, coming LRC
amphisbaena n.fem amphisbaena W7
basis n.fem base, foundation W7
circumvenio, circumvenire, circumvēnī, circumventus vb to encircle, circumvent W7
conveniens, convenientis adj/vb.ptc convenient W7
convenio, convenīre, convēnī, conventus vb to agree, come together, be suitable W7
conventiculum n.neut assembly, reunion W7
conventio n.fem coming together W7
conventus n.masc assembly W7
diabetes n.masc diabetes W7
evenio, evenire, eveni, eventus vb to happen W7
eventus, eventūs n.masc event, consequence W7
intervenio, intervenire vb to come/occur between W7
invenio, invenīre, invēnī, inventus vb to find, invent, come upon W7
perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventum vb to reach, arrive LRC
praeveniens, praevenientis adj/vb.ptc coming before W7
praevenio, praevenire, praeveni, praeventus vb to come before, anticipate, forestall W7
provenio, provenire vb to come forward W7
revenio, revenire vb to come back W7
stereobata n.fem foundation W7
subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventus vb to come up, come to the rescue W7
supervenio, supervenire, superveni, superventus vb to come W7
veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum vb to come, arrive LRC
Vulgar Latin: adventura n.fem adventure W7
Late Latin: bema n.neut step, tribune, tribunal W7
contravenio, contravenīre vb to come against W7
subventio, subventionis n.fem assistance W7
Medieval Latin: convenium n.neut agreement W7
conventus n.masc convent W7
New Latin: Anabaena prop.n (genus name for) anabaena AHD
Old French: advent n advent AHD
avenir vb to chance, happen W7
aventure n.fem adventure W7
base n base AHD
covenant n.masc contract, agreement W7
covenir vb to agree W7
covent n.masc convent W7
mesavenir vb to chance badly W7
mesaventure n.fem misadventure W7
Middle French: avenir, avenu vb to come to W7
base n.fem basis W7
contrevenir vb to contravene W7
convenir vb to come together W7
convention n.fem agreement W7
covin n.masc coven W7
event n.masc event W7
revenir vb to return W7
souvenir vb to remember W7
venir vb to come W7
venue n.fem action of coming W7
French: acrobate n.masc acrobat W7
avenue n avenue CDC
diabase n.fem action of walking through W7
parvenir vb to arrive, achieve W7
parvenu n.masc parvenu, nouveau-riche W7
provenance n.fem origin W7
provenir vb to come forth, originate W7
revenant n.masc ghost W7
revenir vb to return W7
souvenir n.masc memory W7
stéréobate n.masc stereobate W7
Old Prussian: gemton vb to bear GED
Lithuanian: gemù vb to come; be born LRC
giminė n.fem family, lineage LRC
gim̃ti vb to come; be born GED
Latvian: dzìmt, dzimstu, dzimu vb to come; be born LRC
piedzimt, piedzimstu, piedzimu vb to come; be born LRC
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: ἐβάθη vb to be born GED
Greek: adiabatos adj impassable W7
akrobatein vb to walk on tip-toe AHD
akrobatēs n.masc acrobat W7
akrobatos adj walking high W7
amphisbaina n.fem a serpent with a head at both ends W7
ἀναβαίνω vb to mount, go up LRC
Anabasis prop.n.fem book by Xenophon W7
anabasis vb.ger going up/inland W7
βαίνω vb to go, walk, set out LRC
basis n.fem step, base W7
βάσκω vb to go, step, stride GED
βατός adj passable, accessible GED
bēma n.neut step, tribunal W7
βίβημι vb to go, step, stride GED
diabainein vb to cross over W7
diabasis n.fem act of crossing over W7
diabatos adj passable W7
diabētēs n.masc diabetes W7
ἐμβαίνω vb to enter LRC
καταβαίνω vb to descend LRC
stylobatēs n.masc pillared walkway W7
Classical Armenian: kam vb to be, exist LRC
Armenian: ekn vb to come LRC
Old Persian: a-gmatā vb.pret he came LRC
ǰamiya vb.pres goes GED
Avestan: jamaiti vb to go LRC
jasaiti vb to go GED
Sanskrit: gácchati vb to go, step, stride GED
gámati vb to go, step, stride LRC
jigāti vb to go, step, stride GED
Tocharian: käm- vb to come, arrive LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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