Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. gei̯-, and gei̯ə-   'to live, survive'

Semantic Field(s): to Live; Living; Life


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bēo, bēu adj quick GED
bith n world GED
Welsh: byw adj quick GED
Gaulish: bitu- n life; world GED
Bitu-rīges prop.n World Ruler GED
Old English: cēod(a) n.masc sack, pocket GED
codd n.masc cod, hull, husk, pillow ASD/GED
cwic-bēam n.masc type of tree (poplar?) ASD
cwice n.fem quitch ASD/W7
cwic(u), cwuc, cwyc, cuc adj quick ASD/GED
cwifer adj agile, quick W7
cwiþ(a) n.masc womb, belly, body GED
c(w)udu, cwuda, cweodo, cwidu n.neut cud, quid, stomach contents ASD/GED
Middle English: azoc n azoth AHD
cudde n cud W7
quicche n quitch W7
quik adj quick W7
quiver adj quick, agile W7
quiveren vb to quiver W7
reviven vb to revive W7
surviven vb to survive W7
viand n viand W7
vitaille n victual W7
vital adj vital W7
wyvere n wyvern, viper W7
zodiac n zodiac W7
English: aerobe n organism that lives only in presence of oxygen AHD/W7
amphibian n amphibious organism AHD/W7
amphibious adj adapted to both land and water TLL
anabiosis n suspended animation induced by desiccation AHD/W7
azoth n mercury: first principle of metal (alchemy) AHD/W7
bio- pfx life, living organism AHD
biota n flora/fauna of region AHD/W7
biotic adj re: life AHD/W7
cenobite n religious group member living in common AHD/W7
cod n bag, sack OED
convivial adj re: feasting/drinking/good company AHD/W7
cud n food re-chewed by ruminant AHD/W7
dendrobium n (genus of) SE Asian orchid AHD/CDC
diazo adj re: bonded pair of nitrogen atoms AHD
hylozoism n doctrine: all matter is animated AHD/W7
microbe n germ, microorganism AHD/W7
quick adj alive, living, animate, not dead AHD/W7
quick n living thing(s) AHD/W7
Quickbeam prop.n Ent a.k.a. Bregalad in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
quicksilver n/adj mercury W7
quitch n couch grass AHD/W7
quiver vb to shake, move with slight tremble AHD/W7
revive vb to return to life/consciousness, become active/flourishing again AHD/W7
rhizobium n heterotrophic soil bacterium AHD/W7
saprobe n organism that obtains nourishment osmotically AHD/W7
survive vb to live on, remain alive/in existence AHD/W7
symbiosis n (dissimilar organisms) living together in more/less close association AHD/W7
viable adj capable of living AHD/W7
viand n food item AHD/W7
victual n food usable by man AHD/W7
vital adj existing as manifestation of life AHD/W7
vitamin n nutritional substance essential in minute quantity AHD/W7
viva interj used to express approval/good will AHD/W7
vivacious adj sprightly, lively in temper/conduct AHD/W7
vivid adj lively, re: showing vigorous life/freshness AHD/W7
viviparous adj giving birth to living young AHD/W7
weever n edible marine percoid fish with venomous spines on dorsal fin AHD/W7
wyvern n fabulous 2-legged winged creature resembling dragon AHD/W7
zodiac n imaginary belt in sky with ecliptic as central line AHD/W7
zodiacal adj re: zodiac LRC
-zoic adj.sfx re: animal mode of existence AHD/W7
-zoic adj.sfx re: specified geologic era AHD/W7
-zoon n.sfx re: animal AHD/W7
zoon n whole product of fertilized egg AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: quik adj quick GED
Frisian: quick adj quick ASD
Middle Dutch: quic adj quick GED
Dutch: bioscoop n cinema TLL
kweek-gras n.neut dog's grass ASD
kwik adj quick ASD
kwik n quicksilver LRC
kwikzilver n quicksilver TLL
Old Saxon: quik, quic adj quick ASD/GED
Middle Low German: queden n peritoneum GED
Old High German: kweksilabar n quicksilver KDW
quadilla n.fem blister on skin GED
quecca n quitch W7
quik, quek, quec, chuech adj quick, lively ASD
quiti n vulva GED
Middle High German: këc, quëc adj quick ASD
German: keck adj brisk, perky ASD
Quecke n.fem quitch, grass with creeping roots ASD
Quecksilber n.neut quicksilver TLL
quecksilbern adj quicksilver ASD
Symbiose n symbiosis W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kvika n sensitive flesh W7
kvikr, kykr adj quick LRC
Old Icelandic: koddi n cod, pillow; scrotum GED
kuikr adj quick GED
kviðr n womb, belly, body GED
kviðugr adj pregnant GED
Icelandic: kwikr, kykr adj quick ASD
Danish: biograf n cinema TLL
kviksølv n quicksilver TLL
quik adj quick ASD
qwik-græs n quitch ASD
Old Swedish: kviþer n womb, belly GED
Swedish: biograf n cinema TLL
kvicksilver n quicksilver TLL
kwick adj quick ASD
qwick-hwete n.neut dog's grass growing among wheat ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ga-qiujan vb.wk.I to make alive GED
*qiþus n.masc womb, belly, stomach GED
qius adj quick LRC
Latin: convivium n.neut banquet W7
revivo, revivere vb to live again W7
supervivo, supervivere vb to survive W7
victus, victūs n.masc nourishment W7
vipera n.fem viper, snake W7
vita, vitae n.fem life LRC
vitalis adj of life W7
vivax, vivacis adj animated, energetic, that lives long W7
vivendus vb.ger in order to experience W7
vividus adj vivid W7
viviparus adj viviparous W7
vivo, vivere, vixi, victus vb to live W7
vivus adj quick W7
zodiacus n.masc zodiac W7
Late Latin: coenobita n.masc monk W7
coenobium n.neut monastery W7
convivialis adj of life in common W7
victualia victuals, provisions W7
victualis adj of nourishment W7
Medieval Latin: vivanda n.fem food W7
New Latin: Amphibia prop.n (class name for) amphibians AHD
anabiosis n.fem anabiosis, to live again W7
biota biota W7
rhizobium n.neut (genus of) bacterium W7
symbiosis n.fem symbiosis W7
-zoon sfx animal W7
zoon n.neut zoon W7
Portuguese: vivo adj vivid, alive TLL
Spanish: vivo adj vivid, alive TLL
Old French: azoc n azoth AHD
Old North French: wivre n.fem wyvern, viper W7
Middle French: revivre vb to live again W7
survivre vb to outlive W7
viable adj fit for life W7
viand n.masc meat, food W7
vie n.fem life W7
vitaille n.fem nourishment W7
vital adj vital W7
zodiaque n.masc zodiac W7
French: aérobie n.masc aerobe W7
viable adj fit for life, that will stay alive W7
vif adj vivid, alive TLL
Italian: viva interj hurrah W7
vivere vb to live W7
vivo adj vivid, alive TLL
Old Prussian: gīwa- vb to live GED
Lithuanian: gýti vb to live GED
gývas adj quick LRC
gyvénti, gyvẽna, gyvẽno vb to live LRC
Latvian: dzît vb to live LRC
Old Church Slavonic: živъ adj quick LRC
žiti vb to live GED
žito n.neut grain, produce LRC
Homeric Greek: βέομαι vb to live LRC
ζωή n.fem substance, means of life LRC
ζώω vb to live LRC
Greek: amphibion n amphibious being W7
amphibios adj living a double life W7
anabioun vb to return to life W7
anabiōsis n.fem return to life W7
βέομαι vb to live GED
βίος n.masc life, manner of living LRC
biotē n.fem life W7
bioun vb to live W7
biōtikos adj of life W7
ζάω vb to live LRC
zōē n.fem life W7
zōidiakos adj zodiacal, re: carved figures W7
zōidion n.neut carved figure, zodiacal sign W7
zōikos adj of animals W7
zōion n.neut animal W7
zōos adj alive, living W7
ζώω vb to live GED
symbios adj living together W7
symbioun vb to live together W7
symbiōsis n.fem state of living together W7
Late Greek: koinobion n.neut cenobite W7
Armenian: keam vb to live LRC
Old Iranian: *jīvaka- adj lively AHD
Old Persian: jīva adj quick LRC
Middle Persian: *zhīwak- adj quick AHD
Avestan: ǰvaiti vb to live GED
ǰyā-tu n life GED
Sanskrit: jīvá- adj quick LRC
jī́vati vb to live LRC
Tocharian B: śau- vb to live GED
Tocharian A: śo- vb to live GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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