Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. ger(ə)-   'to praise, congratulate, raise one's voice'

Semantic Field(s): Praise (n), to Shout, Cry Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bárd n bard IEW/ODE
Welsh: bardd n bard IEW
Middle English: agreen vb to agree W7
bard n bard W7
grace n grace W7
gratis adj/adv gratis W7
gratitude n gratitude W7
maugre prep maugre W7
English: agree vb to concede, admit AHD/W7
Bard prop.n Laketown hero in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
bard n poet/singer, declaimer of epic/heroic verse AHD/W7
congratulate vb.trans to express pleasure to, re: success/good fortune AHD/W7
disgrace n loss of grace/favor/honor AHD/W7
grace n unmerited divine assistance given to man for regeneration/sanctification AHD/W7
grate adj pleasing, thankful AHD/W7
grateful adj appreciating benefits received AHD/W7
gratify vb.trans to remunerate AHD/W7
gratis adv free, without charge/recompense AHD/W7
gratitude n thankfulness, state of being grateful AHD/W7
gratuitous adj given unearned/without recompense AHD/W7
gratuity n tip, something given voluntarily AHD
ingrate n ungrateful person AHD/W7
ingratiate vb.trans to gain favor by deliberate effort AHD/W7
maugre prep in spite of AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: queran vb to sigh W7
German: Barde n.masc bard LRC
gratis adj free, without charge/recompense LRC
gratulieren vb to congratulate LRC
Latin: bardus n bard ODE
congratulor, congratulari, congratulatus vb.dep to congratulate, wish joy W7
gratia, gratiae n.fem favor, grace, esteem, regard LRC
gratificor, gratificari vb.dep to make oneself pleasing W7
gratiis gratis, without recompense W7
gratuitus adj unprovoked, gratuitous W7
gratulor, gratulari vb.dep to wish joy W7
gratus vb.ptc pleasing, agreeable W7
ingratus adj ungrateful W7
Medieval Latin: gratitudo n.fem gratitude W7
Old French: agreer vb to agree AHD
grace n.fem grace, charm, favor W7
gré n.masc pleasure W7
maugré n.masc displeasure W7
Middle French: agreer vb to fit, agree W7
disgrâce n.fem disgrace W7
gratifier vb to gratify W7
gratitude n.fem gratitude W7
French: gré n.masc will, pleasure W7
malgré prep in spite of TLL
Old Italian: disgrazia n.fem disgrace W7
Italian: grazia n.fem grace W7
Lithuanian: gẽras, gerà adj good, well LRC
girdėti, gir̃di, girdėjo vb to hear LRC
Latvian: dzirdēt, dzirdu, dzirdēju vb to hear LRC
Albanian: gërshas vb to call, invite IEW
Sanskrit: gṛnāti vb to praise W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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