Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gou-   'cow, ox, gaur'

Semantic Field(s): Cow, Ox, Steer


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bó n cow RPN
Old English: butere n.fem butter, cheese ASD
cū, cȳ(e) n.fem cow AHD/ASD/RPN
Middle English: beef n beef W7
bugle n bugle W7
butter n butter W7
cou, kyn n cow(s) AHD/W7
English: beef n flesh of adult domestic bovine AHD/W7
Bootes prop.n northern circumpolar constellation LRC
bovine adj/n (re:) ox/cow AHD/W7
buccinator n muscle forming cheek wall AHD
buffalo n oxlike Old World mammal AHD
bugle n brass instrument with cupped mouthpiece (like trumpet) AHD/W7
bulimia n insatiable appetite AHD
bumelia n tree/shrub with very hard wood AHD
buprestid n destructive wood-boring beetle AHD
butter n solid food emulsion made by churning milk/cream AHD/W7
Butterbur(r) prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
butyric adj re: a certain isomeric fatty acid AHD/W7
cow n mature female of cattle AHD/W7
gaur n (East Indian) wild ox AHD/W7
gayal n domesticated bovine mammal AHD
gunny n coarse jute sacking AHD/W7
kine cows, cattle AHD
nilgai n large long-legged Indian antelope AHD
proboscis n trunk (e.g. of elephant) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: botera, butera n butter ASD
kū n.fem cow ASD/RPN
Frisian: buter n butter ASD
kw, ky n.fem cow(s) ASD
Dutch: bōter n.fem butter ASD
koe n.fem cow ASD
Old Saxon: kō n.fem cow ASD/RPN
Old High German: butera, butere n.fem butter ASD/W7
kuo, chuo, kua, kō n.fem cow ASD/W7
Middle High German: buter n butter ASD
kuo n.fem cow ASD
German: Butter n.fem butter ASD
Kuh n.fem cow ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kýr n.fem cow LRC
Icelandic: kȳr n.fem cow ASD
Danish: ko(e) n cow ASD
Swedish: ko n.fem cow ASD
Latin: bōs, bovis n.masc/fem bull, bovine RPN
bucca n.fem cheek ELD
būcina n.fem horn, trumpet AHD
būcinātor n.masc trumpeter ELD
būcula n.fem.dim heifer, young cow ELD
buculus n.masc little ox W7
butyrum n.neut butter W7
proboscis n.fem a growth W7
Late Latin: bōs, bovis n.masc/fem bull, bovine W7
bovinus adj bovine W7
Portuguese: boi n bovine: ox TLL
Spanish: buey n.masc bovine: ox TLL
Old French: buef n.masc beef; bovine: ox W7
bugle n.masc ox, bugle W7
French: beurre n.masc butter ASD
bœuf n.masc beef; bovine: ox TLL
butyrique adj re: butter W7
Italian: bove n bovine: ox TLL
bue n.masc bovine: ox LRC
bu(ti)rro n.masc butter ASD
Lithuanian: gauja n.fem herd, band W7
Latvian: gotiņa n.fem little cow LRC
gùovs n cow RPN
Greek: βόσκω vb to feed, tend (cattle) LS
βοῦς n.masc/fem ox, bull, cow LRC
βούτης n.masc herdsman, plowman LS
βού-τῡρον n.neut butter LS
πουλυβότειρα adj fruitful, all-nourishing LRC
προβοσκίς n.fem means of providing food LS
Armenian: kov n cow RPN
Avestan: gāuš n ox, bull, cow RPN
Sanskrit: gáuḥ, gouḥ n ox, bull, cow RPN
gaura n gaur, bull W7
Bengali: gayāl n gayal AHD
Hindi: ganī n coarse jute sacking W7
gaur n gaur W7
Tocharian B: keu n cow RPN
Tocharian A: ko n cow RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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