Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gretso-   'big, thick, gross'

Semantic Field(s): Big, Large, Great, Thick (in Dimension)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: engrossen vb to engross W7
groce gross; twelve dozen things W7
grocer n grocer W7
gross adj gross W7
English: engross vb.trans to copy/write with large letters AHD/W7
grocer n dealer in foodstuffs/other staple commodities AHD/W7
grosbeak n European/American finch with large stout conical bill AHD/W7
groschen n small (European) coin AHD
grosgrain n silk/rayon fabric with cotton ribs AHD/W7
gross adj immediately obvious/noticeable AHD/W7
gross n amount, overall total AHD/W7
grosz n Polish coin AHD
kurus n Turkish monetary unit AHD
West Germanic  
German: gross adj gross, big, large LRC
Latin: grossa n.fem large handwriting W7
grossus adj thick, coarse W7
Medieval Latin: ingrosso, ingrossare vb to enlarge W7
Middle French: gros adj big, fat, thick, coarse W7
grosse n.fem twelve dozens W7
grossier n wholesaler W7
French: engrosser vb to enlarge, get a woman pregnant W7
gros adj gross, thick, large W7
grosbec n.masc grosbeak W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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