Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghedh-   'to ask, beg, wish for'

Semantic Field(s): to Ask, Request, to Will, Wish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: guidiu vb to ask for LRC
Welsh: gweddi n prayer LRC
Middle English: manifest adj manifest W7
English: infest vb.trans to spread/swarm in/over in troublesome manner AHD/W7
manifest adj readily perceived by senses, esp. by sight AHD/W7
manifest n list, invoice, indication, declaration W7
West Germanic  
German: Manifest n.neut manifest LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: geð n.neut mind, wits, sense; disposition, inclination LRC
Latin: -festus sfx hit W7
infesto, infestāre vb to infest, ravage W7
infestus adj/vb.ptc hostile W7
manifestus adj manifest, obvious W7
Middle French: infester vb to infest, invade W7
manifeste adj obvious W7
Lithuanian: gedáuti vb to desire LRC
goodas n desire, longing LRC
Polish: żądza n greed, wish, desire LRC
Old Church Slavonic: žędati, žęždǫ, žęždeši vb to thirst, desire, covet LRC
zeml'ja n.fem earth, land LRC
Greek: polythestos adj very desirous LRC
pynthanesthai vb to learn by inquiry W7
Old Persian: ǰadiyāmiy vb to ask for LRC
Avestan: ǰaiδyemi vb to ask for LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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