Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gheiə- : ghī-   'vein, sinew, tendon'

Semantic Field(s): Blood, Body, Rope, Cord


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: filen vb to file W7
filet n fillet W7
purfilen vb to purfle W7
English: defile n narrow gorge/passage AHD/W7
enfilade n condition permitting lengthwise gunfire AHD/W7
filament n single thread, thin threadlike object/process/appendage AHD/W7
filar adj re: thread/line AHD/W7
filaria n thin parasitic insect larva AHD/W7
file n folder/cabinet/container to keep things in order AHD/W7
file vb to arrange for preservation/reference AHD/W7
filiform adj shaped like filament AHD/W7
fillet n ribbon/narrow strip of material AHD/W7
filoplume n hairlike feather AHD
filose adj filamentous AHD/W7
filovirus n thread-like RNA animal virus AHD
filum n filament, filamentous structure AHD/W7
profile n representation in outline AHD/W7
purfle vb.trans to ornament (a border) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Filet n.neut fillet LRC
Latin: filo, filāre vb to spin W7
filum n.neut thread W7
Late Latin: filo, filāre vb to reel silk (from cocoons) W7
Medieval Latin: filamentum n.neut filament W7
New Latin: filaria n.fem parasitic insect larva W7
filum n.neut filament, filamentous structure W7
Portuguese: fio n thread, filament TLL
Spanish: hilo n thread, filament TLL
Old French: enfiler vb to thread W7
fil n.masc thread W7
Middle French: filament n.masc filament W7
filer vb to file (documents on string/wire) W7
filet n.masc little thread, net W7
profiler vb to profile, outline W7
French: défilé n.masc narrow valley between cliffs W7
défiler vb to parade in column W7
enfilade n.fem series, thread, enfilade W7
enfiler vb to thread W7
fil n thread, filament TLL
Italian: filo n thread, filament TLL
profilare vb to draw in outline W7
profilo n.masc profile W7
Armenian: ǰil n sinew W7/HH


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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