Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghren-   'diaphragm; mind, soul'

Semantic Field(s): Front of Chest, Mind, Soul, Spirit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: frantik adj frantic W7
frenesie n frenzy W7
frenetik adj insane W7
English: frantic adj mentally deranged AHD/W7
frenetic adj frantic, frenzied AHD/W7
frenzy n temporary madness AHD/W7
frenzy vb.trans to affect with frenzy W7
hebephrenia n type of schizophrenia affecting youth AHD
holophrastic adj expressing complex of ideas in single work AHD/W7
paraphrase n restatement of text/work/passage, giving meaning in another form AHD/W7
periphrasis n circumlocution, use of longer in place of shorter/plainer phrasing AHD/W7
phrase n diction, characteristic style/manner of expression AHD/W7
-phrastic adj.sfx re: complex of ideas AHD/W7
-phrenia n.sfx condition of disordered mental functions AHD/W7
phrenic adj re: diaphragm W7
phrenitis n diaphragm inflammation AHD
phren(o)- pfx mind, diaphragm AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: grunr n.masc suspicion LRC
Latin: periphrasis n.fem periphrasis W7
New Latin: -phrenia sfx re: mind W7
Middle French: frenesie n.fem frenzy W7
frenetique adj insane W7
paraphrase n.fem paraphrase W7
Greek: εὐφραίνω vb to please, delight LRC
κρατερόφρων adj dauntless, stout-hearted LRC
paraphrazein vb to paraphrase W7
periphrazein vb to express periphrastically W7
periphrasis n.fem periphrasis W7
phrazein vb to tell, explain, point out W7
phrasis n.fem explanation W7
phrenitikos adj re: mind W7
phrenitis n.fem brain inflammation W7
phrēn, phrenos n.fem mind, diaphragm W7
φρονέω vb to understand LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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