PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: ha ha! '(laughter)'
Semantic Field(s): Various Cries
|Old English:||ceahhetan||vb||to laugh loudly||RPN|
|Middle English:||cakelen||vb||to cackle||W7|
|English:||cackle||vb||to emit hen-like sound/noise||LRC|
|Old High German:||kachazzen, chahhazen||vb||to laugh loudly||ASD|
|Middle High German:||kach(ez)en||vb||to guffaw||RPN/ASD|
|kachen||vb||to laugh loudly||ASD|
|Latin:||cachinnare||vb||to laugh loudly||ASD|
|ha(ha)hae||interj||ha ha! [laughter]||ELD|
|Lithuanian:||gagù, gagė́ti||vb||to cackle||RPN|
|Russian:||gógot||n||cackle, loud laughter||RPN|
|Armenian:||kakazem||vb||to stammer, jabber, lisp||RPN|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|ELD||=||Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|RPN||=||Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|