Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: i̯ek-   'to speak'

Semantic Field(s): to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gēogelere n.masc juggler ASD/W7
Middle English: jeopardie n jeopardy W7
jogelen vb to juggle W7
jogelour n juggler W7
juel n jewel W7
English: jeopardy n danger, exposure to/imminence of death/loss/injury AHD/W7
jewel n precious stone ornament AHD/W7
jocose adj merry, given to joking AHD/W7
jocular adj mirthful, given to jesting AHD/W7
joke n something said/done to provoke laughter AHD/W7
juggle vb to perform physical tricks with objects AHD/W7
juggler n one who performs tricks/acts of magic AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: gehan vb to say W7
gougulari n juggler ASD
German: Gaukler n.masc juggler ASD
Jongleur n.masc juggler LRC
Juwel n.neut jewel LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: kuklari n juggler ASD
Latin: jocosus adj humorous, re: play W7
jocularis adj jocular W7
joculator n.masc joker, juggler W7
joculor, joculari, joculatus vb.dep to joke, play W7
joculus n.masc.dim little game/joke W7
jocus n.masc game, joke W7
Old French: jeu n.masc game, play W7
jogleour n.masc juggler W7
juel n.masc toy W7
Anglo-French: juparti n.masc alternative, divided game W7
Middle French: jogler vb to joke W7
French: jeu n game TLL
Sanskrit: yācati vb to implore W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at