Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: i̯ē̆k-r̥(t-), genitive i̯ek-n-és   'liver'

Semantic Field(s): Liver


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lifer n.fem liver ASD
Middle English: giser n gizzard W7
liver n liver W7
English: gizzard n muscular enlargement of bird's alimentary canal AHD/W7
heparin n polysaccharide sulfuric acid ester AHD/W7
hepatic adj re: liver AHD/W7
hepatitis n liver inflammation AHD
hepat(o)- pfx liver AHD
liver n glandular vertebrate organ secreting bile etc. W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: lever n liver TLL
Old High German: leb(a)ra, libera, libara n liver ASD/IEW
German: Leber n liver ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: lifr n.fem liver IEW
Icelandic: lifr n liver ASD
Danish: lever n liver TLL
Swedish: lever n liver TLL
Latin: hepaticus adj hepatic W7
jecur, jecoris n.neut liver IEW
Old North French: guisier n.masc gizzard W7
Old Prussian: iagno n.fem liver IEW
Lithuanian: yãknos n.fem liver IEW
Latvian: akna n.fem liver IEW
Homeric Greek: ἧπαρ n.neut liver IEW
Greek: λιπαρός adj sleek, shining (with ointment) IEW
Hittite: lissa- n liver LRC
Armenian: leard n liver IEW
Avestan: yākarə n liver IEW
Sanskrit: yákr̥t n liver IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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