Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: i̯eu̯os-   'rule, right, justice, statute'

Semantic Field(s): General Law


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: abjuren vb to abjure W7
adjuren vb to adjure W7
conjuren vb to conjure W7
injurie n injury W7
jure n jury W7
just adj just W7
English: abjure vb.trans to deny/renounce upon oath AHD/W7
adjure vb.trans to charge/command solemnly under oath/penalty of curse AHD/W7
conjure vb to charge/entreat earnestly/solemnly AHD/W7
injury n wrong, act that damages/hurts AHD/W7
jural adj juristic, re: law AHD/W7
juridical adj re: office of judge/administration of justice AHD/W7
jurisconsult n jurist AHD/W7
jurisdiction n right/power/authority to apply/interpret law AHD/W7
jurist n one having thorough knowledge of law AHD/W7
jury n men sworn to give verdict on matter submitted to them AHD/W7
just adj reasonable, conforming to/having basis in fact/reason AHD/W7
justice n fairness, quality of being just AHD
justice n justice CDC
nonjuror n one who refuses oath-taking AHD
perjure vb.trans to commit perjury AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Jura n law LRC
Jury n.fem jury, selection committee LRC
Justiz n.fem justice LRC
Latin: abjuro, abjurāre vb to deny on oath W7
adjuro, adjurāre vb to adjure W7
conjuro, conjurare vb to swear together W7
consulo, consulere, consului, consultus vb to consult W7
iniuria, injuriae n.fem wrong, harsh treatment, damage, injustice LRC
injurus adj perjury W7
iūdicō, iūdicāre, iūdicāvī, iūdicātum vb to decide LRC
ius, iuris n.neut law, right LRC
jurisconsultus n.masc lawyer W7
juro, jurāre vb to swear W7
justitia n justice CDC
justus adj just, right W7
perjuro, perjurare vb to perjure W7
Medieval Latin: jurista n.fem jurist W7
Old French: abjurer vb to abjure, abstain from AHD
conjurer vb to conjure W7
jurer vb to swear W7
justice, jostice n justice CDC
Anglo-French: juree n.fem jury17 W7
Middle French: ajurer vb to adjure W7
juriste n.masc jurist, lawyer W7
juste adj just, right W7
perjurer vb to commit perjury W7
Sanskrit: yoṣ n welfare W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at