Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. i̯u-   'you (plural)'

Semantic Field(s): Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ēow you W7
ēower your TLL
gē you W7
git pron.2.du you two TLL
inc pron.2.du.dat/acc you two TLL
incer pron.2.du.gen your two TLL
incit pron.2.du.acc you two TLL
Middle English: ye you W7
you you W7
English: rendezvous n place appointed for meeting/assembling AHD/W7
ye pron.2 you AHD/W7
you pron.2 (one(s) being addressed) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: je you [atonic form] TLL
jij you TLL
jou you TLL
jovw your TLL
jullie you TLL
u you TLL
uw your TLL
Old High German: ir you W7
iu you W7
German: euch pron.2.dat/acc you LRC
euer your LRC
ihr you LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: yðar your TLL
yður you TLL
ykkar pron.2.du.gen your two TLL
ykkur pron.2.du.dat/acc you two TLL
Swedish: Er your, you (courteous) TLL
Ni you (courteous) TLL
Old French: vos you LRC
Middle French: rendezvous n.masc appointment W7
French: vous pron.2 you LRC
Albanian: juaj your LRC
ju you IEW
Sanskrit: yūyam you W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
du=dual (number)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
2=2nd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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