Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑ād- : k̑ədes- : k̑əd-s-   'hate, displeasure, uneasiness'

Semantic Field(s): Hate (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cath n battle GED
Middle Irish: caiss n hate GED
Welsh: cas n hate GED
Gaulish: catu- n.pfx battle GED
Catu-rīges prop.n Lord of Battle GED
Old English: hati(ge)an vb.wk to hate ASD/GED
heaþu- n.pfx war, battle GED
hete n.masc hate, spite, malice, enmity ASD/GED
hettan vb to persecute GED
Middle English: hate n hate W7
heinous adj heinous W7
English: hate n intense aversion/hostility due to fear/anger/injury AHD/W7
heinous adj abominable, hatefully/shockingly evil AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hatia vb.wk to hate GED
Old Saxon: hatōn, hatan vb.wk to hate, persecute ASD/GED
heti n.str.masc hate GED
hōti adj hateful, inimical GED
Old High German: hadu- n.pfx battle GED
haz n.str.masc hate, hatred, enmity GED
haz(z)ēn, haz(z)ōn vb to hate, persecute ASD/GED
Middle High German: hetzen vb.wk to hunt, pursue GED
German: Hass n.masc hate ASD
hassen vb to hate ASD
hetzen vb to hunt, pursue LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hata, hatað vb.wk to hate, damage, destroy GED
Old Icelandic: hatr n.str.neut hate GED
Icelandic: hata vb to hate ASD
hatr n hate ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *hatan vb.wk.III to hate GED
hatis n.neut hatred, anger GED
*hatizon vb.wk.II to be angry GED
*hatjan vb.wk.I to hate GED
Oscan: cadeis adj re: hatred GED
Middle French: haine n.fem hate W7
haineus adj heinous W7
French: haine n.fem hate TLL
Greek: ἀκηδής adj without care/sorrow LS
κῆδος n.neut care, grief, sorrow LS
κότος n anger GED
Sanskrit: ri-śādas n (epithet of) gods GED
śátruṣ n enemy GED
Tocharian A: kat n destruction GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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