Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. kā̆i-, kī̆-   'heat'

Semantic Field(s): Hot, Warm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hǣtan vb.wk to heat RPN/ASD
hǣte n.fem heat, inflammation RPN
hǣto, hǣtu n.fem heat, inflammation RPN
hās adj hoarse IEW
hāt adj hot, fervid LRC
Middle English: heten vb to heat W7
ho(r)s adj hoarse W7
hot adj hot W7
English: heat n warmth, condition of being hot W7
heat vb to make/become warm/hot AHD/W7
hoarse adj rough/harsh/grating in sound IEW/W7
hot adj having high temperature AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hēt adj hot RPN
hēte n.fem heat ASD
Old Saxon: hēt adj hot RPN
hēt n.neut heat ASD
Old High German: heiz adj hot RPN
heiz(i) n.fem heat ASD
German: heiss adj hot ASD
heizen vb to heat ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: hāss adj hoarse IEW
heita vb to heat RPN
heitr adj hot, burning RPN
hiti n heat, warmth RPN
Icelandic: heita vb to heat ASD
heitr adj hot ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: heitō n.fem fever RPN/ASD
Lithuanian: kaistù, kaitaũ, kaĩsti vb to heat up, get warm RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at