Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: kai-lo-, kai-lu-   'bright; hale, whole, healthy'

Semantic Field(s): Bright, Well; Health


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hǣlan vb.wk to heal ASD/W7
hāl adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
hālettan, hālette, hāleted vb.wk.I to hail, salute LRC
hālga n hallow OED
hālgan hallows OED
hālgian vb.wk to hallow ASD/W7
hālian vb.wk to heal, get well, become hale ASD
hālig adj holy, hallowed LRC
hāligdæg n holiday W7
hāligdōm n halidom W7
hālig-mōnaþ n.masc September, lit. holy-month (of sacrifice) ASD
Middle English: Alhalwemesse prop.n Allhallowmas AHD
hail interj hail (greeting/salutation) W7
halidom n halidom W7
halowen vb to hallow W7
haly, holi, holy adj holy W7
helen vb to heal W7
holiday n holiday W7
holihoc n hollyhock W7
hool adj whole, healthy W7
English: Allhallowmas prop.n.arch All Saints' Day AHD
hail interj [used to express] acclamation AHD/W7
hale adj sound, free from defect/disease/infirmity AHD/W7
Haleth prop.n Helm's oldest son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
halidom n something held sacred AHD/W7
Halifirien prop.n beacon hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Halimath prop.n Shire calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hallow n saint, holy person OED
hallow vb.trans to make holy/set apart for holy use AHD/W7
Halloween prop.n evening before All Saints' Day AHD
Hallows prop.n tombs in Tolkien: Lord of the Rings LRC
hallows tombs, shrines, relics, holy places OED
heal vb to make/become sound/whole AHD/W7
health n general bodily condition AHD/W7
holiday n lit. holy day AHD/W7
hollyhock n widely cultivated Chinese perennial herb AHD/W7
holy adj sacred, set apart to service of deity AHD/W7
wassail n (early English toast to) good health AHD/W7
whole adj unhurt, free of wound/injury AHD/W7
wholesome adj promoting health/well-being AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: hēl adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
hēla vb to heal ASD
hēlich adj holy ASD
Old Saxon: hēl adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
hēlag adj holy ASD
hēlagōn vb to hallow ASD
hēlean vb to heal ASD
Heliand prop.n.masc Savior (Jesus) in epic poem Heliand LRC
Old High German: heil adj healthy, unhurt W7
heilag adj holy ASD
heilagōn vb to hallow ASD
heilen, heilan vb to heal ASD/W7
heiligtuom n halidom ASD
German: heil adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
Heiland n.masc savior, redeemer LRC
heilen vb to heal ASD
heilig adj holy ASD
heiligen vb to hallow ASD
Heiligthum n halidom, sanctuary ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: heill adj sound, safe, healthy LRC
heill n.fem/neut good luck, good omen LRC
Icelandic: heilagr adj holy ASD
heill adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
helga vb to hallow ASD
helgidōmr n sanctuary ASD
Swedish: hel adj whole TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hailjan vb to heal ASD
hails adj hale, whole, healthy ASD
Crimean Gothic: iel n.neut life, health CGo
iel(tsch) adj well, alive, healthy CGo


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at